The the Valley-of-Marne ( 94 ) is a department French. It was named thus according to the Marne, a river.
HistoryThe department of the Valley-of-Marne was created on January 1st, 1968, pursuant to the law of July 10th, 1964, in accordance with the decree on enforcement of a law of February 25th, 1965, starting from the south-eastern part of the old department of the the Seine (29 communes) and of a small portion of that of Seine-et-Oise (18 communes).
With the creation of the department, this last account 1.121.319 inhabitants, mainly placed in small unit and suburban houses built between the end of the 19th century and the Years 1930, great whose operational startup begins with leaving the Second world war. The prefecture, Creteil, profit from a program of particular town planning: the " new Créteil".
The political bet with the creation of the department was to mix easy populations, on the fringes of the territory, and working populations, in the center, in order to leave a chance to the right parties to control the general advice. The bet is won at the time of the cantonal elections of 1970 with the victory of the lists gaullists to the cantonal elections. The UDR Roland Nungesser becomes president of the General advice in the place of the Communist Gaston Viens. The department however rocks on the left at the time of the cantonal elections of 1976 with the election of the Communist Michel Germa on March 18th, 1976 with the presidency of the General advice. The weight of the PC erodes, but remains strong in the department with 21,18% more for the communist lists at the time of the first turn of the cantonal elections of 1992. The PC is maintained thus like the first political clout of a department which leans clearly on the left. Michel Germa is replaced by the Communist Christian Favier on March 23rd, 2001.
See also: History of the Valley-of-Marne
GeographyThe Valley-of-Marne belongs to the area Île-de-France. It is bordering on the departments of the Seine-Saint-Denis in the North-East, of Seine-et-Marne in the east, the the Essonne in the south, the Hauts-de-Seine in the west and Paris in the North-West.
The Valley-of-Marne is a plain alluvial because it is in this department that is carried out the junction of the the Seine and the Marne, with Charenton-the-Bridge. In addition to the Seine and the Marne, the Beaver, the Midnight supper and the Morbras also sprinkle the department. The widest water level is the Creteil Lake which covers approximately 40 hectares. Average altitude is of 50 meters with approximately 30 meters on the level of Paris and 126 meters on the level of the plate of Villejuif.
This department is very urbanized close to Paris but preserves some rare agricultural spaces at south-east, on the slope of the plate of the Brie. The population density culminates with 24.398 h/km ² with Vincennes against only 884 h/km ² with Noiseau and 727 h/km ² with Périgny.
See also: Geography of the Valley-of-Marne
ClimateThe climate of the Valley-of-Marne is a oceanic Climat degraded with semi-continental nuances. The average temperatures are almost always higher than 3°C the winter and lower than 20°C the summer. This softness of the temperatures is a oceanic character. The Valley-of-Marne receives less than 650 mm of water per annum on average. The rains fall in autumn and the maximum ones are located in summer in the form of storms. Snow is rare: less than 11 days per annum on average. The strong urbanization influences the climate by heating the temperatures, and atmospheric pollution is cause of a loss from 15 to 20% of the total solar radiation.
Among the last weather episodes which touched the department let us quote the Tempête of 1999 with points of 173 km/h in Orly around 6 hours of the morning on December 26th, 1999 and the Canicule of 2003 with a surmortality of 171 % in August 2003, is the most rate in France.
See also: Climate of the Valley-of-Marne
DemographyThe inhabitants of the Valley-of-Marne are the Valley-with-Marnais . With a total population of 1.279.000 inhabitants (at January 1st, 2005), the department places itself at the 10th national rank. In 2004,26,0% of the population had less than 20 years for 56,9% from 20 to 59 years and 17,1% of more than 60 years. 54.963 foreigners of the European Union and 89.951 foreigners except European Union, the Valley-of-Marne takes into account 11,8% of foreign population in 1999. This figure is in fall (less 1%) compared to 1990.
The most populated communes department at January 1st, 2005 are:
See also: Demography of the Valley-of-Marne
TransportThe department can be pressed on a solid grid system combining air, rail, road and river. The Aéroport of Orly is opened with the public since 1947. It is about the second airport platform of France after the Aéroport Roissy-Charles-of-Gaulle, with more than 210.000 movements per annum and was the first of 1950 in the middle of the Années 1980. This airport is connected by the road and the rail, in particular with Paris. On the level of public transport, one will quote Orlybus, Orlyval and the Noctilien, on the level of the highway network, one will note that the national 7 passes under the air terminal of Southern Orly inaugurated in 1961. The highway A106 connects the airport to the highway A6. Other highways crossing the department: the A4 and the A86, whereas A6 is divided into two branches: A6A and A6B. If A4 offers a good service road of the North-East of the department, the East-West transverse axis is A86 tandis the North-South axis is A6. The North-South axis is more natural, because it follows the road of Paris. It is also the case of the lines Métros (Ligne 1, 7, and 8) and of the lines of the RER (Ligne has, B, C, D and E). Attempt at installation of a line of public transport in exclusive right of way following the East-West axis: the the Trans-Valley-of-Marne. This last connects the stations of the RER Saint-Maur - Creteil and Croix of Berny while passing by the International market of Rungis. A project of extension to the east east being studied. At the river level, the department is sprinkled by the Seine and the Marne allowing transport of weighty by barges. Another important node: the railway station of sorting of Villeneuve-saint-Georges, one of most important in the world.
EconomyThe economy is turned towards the Orly-Rungis pole, the companies of point of health and the cinema. In 2004, the average rate of unemployment is of 11,5% in the department with strong disparities from one commune to another to reach 16 to 19% with Valenton, Ivry-sur-Seine, Vitry-sur-Seine and Orly. The pole of Orly is however the second more important basin of employment in Ile-de-France with 60.000 employment. This site however lost more than 16.000 industrial employment between 1994 and 1997. This movement of disindustrialization was accompanied by an assembled inmportante tertiary sector. The deactivation of the project of third Parisian airport starts again the site of Orly with a construction project of a third air terminal. Logistics constitutes one of the strong points of the department thanks to good transport infrastructures varied with the doors of Paris: air, road, rail and river. The International market of Rungis benefits full with these possibilities.
Health is a growth industry in the department with a concentration of hospitals and searchs for reputation. CHU Henri Mondor of Creteil or the Institute Gustave-Roussy of Villejuif, in particular. The Valley-of-Marne is the second with the national plan, after Paris, as regards clinical medicine.
High technologies have in the valley of the Beaver a dedicated space. On the 27 communes of this " Silicon Valley " with the Frenchwoman, ten are in the Valley-of-Marne. Another important activity, but which is based this time on a long tradition more than centenary: the cinema. The loops of the Marne are particularly concerned by this activity, thus perpetuating the memory of the studios of Joinville.
See also: Economy of the Valley-of-Marne
TourismThe edges of the Marne with its Guinguette S and its islands constitute a remarkable, known site of long time by the tourists in search of expatriation. Many popular songs formerly praised qualities of these places: When one walks at the edge of water sung by Jean Gabin in 1936, Ah! white light local wine written in 1943 by Jean Dréjac and which was a great success right after the war or In Joinville-le-Pont sung by Bourvil in 1953, in particular, but also of films like Nogent, Eldorado of Sunday of Marcel Carné (1929) or the Beautiful Team of Julien Duvivier (1936).
Resolutely turned towards modernity, the Musée of contemporary art of the Valley-of-Marne (or Mac/Valley) propose in the downtown area of Vitry-sur-Seine a space dedicated to the Contemporary art in France since 1950 on 10.000m ². Mac/Val was inaugurated in November 2005.
The Lac of Creteil is a water level of approximately 40 hectares which allows the practice of the veil, in particular. This urban lake is also an important natural site arranged to facilitate the passage of the migrations of birds. The Valley-of-Marne is also a ground of castles. Let us quote here the Château of Vincennes and the Château of Grosbois.
The hotel park of the Valley-of-Marne counted in 2003 170 rooms in four stars, 2784 rooms in three stars, 3635 rooms in two stars and 1651 rooms of less than two stars. On the whole, 8240 rooms is an increase of 56% between 1990 and 2003.
- old Villas of the beginning of the 20th century of style " néo-" : néonormand, Néogothique, Néorenaissance, néo-Louis XIII, néomauresque. They inaugurate the Art nouveau.
- the Meulière S are typical constructions of the suburbs of Paris. Most beautiful, of style Art nouveau is villas built for the Parisian rich person who wished to slacken in the countryside around Paris. Some of these houses are characterized by wrought iron decorations (glass, doors, windows…) out of bricks and ceramics and true architectural curiosities constitute which are discovered during walks in particular in the streets of the old communes of the Valley-of-Marne.
See also: Tourism in the Valley-of-Marne
EducationThe department counts in 2005 - 2006 771 public corporations (325 nursery schools, 294 elementary schools, 102 colleges, 48 colleges and 2 regional schools of adapted teaching) and 94 private establishments (47 schools and 47 establishments of the second degree). In September 2005, the school inspectorate of the Valley-of-Marne provides education for 252.757 pupils.
The department also counts a university pole: the University Paris XII the Valley-of-Marne, localized with Creteil. The Université cristolienne is inaugurated in 1970. It is a multidisciplinary center. Medicine is taught within CHU Henri-Mondor inaugurated in 1969. Since 1972, Institut of Town planning of Paris is in Creteil within the University Paris XII. Saint-Maur-of-Ditches accommodated the students in economy and Droit, but the latter joined Creteil after the construction of new buildings academic in the prefectoral city.
- List of the deputies of the Valley-of-Marne
- List of the senators of the Valley-of-Marne
- List of the general advisers of the Valley-of-Marne
- List of the mayors of the Valley-of-Marne
See also: Political of the Valley-of-Marne
See also: Administration of the Valley-of-Marne
- List of the prefects of the Valley-of-Marne
- List of the communes of the Historical Valley-of-Marne
- of the communes of the Valley-of-Marne
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