The United Kingdom
The the United Kingdom is a State independent of Northern Europe created in 1707, composed of the Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland and member of the European Union since 1973. Most of its territories are located near the north-western coast of continental Europe and are surrounded by the the North Sea, the Manche, the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
See also: History of the United Kingdom
Birth of a UnionThe kingdoms of England and Scotland cohabited as sovereign and independent nations with their own monarchs and political structures since the 9th century. Formerly the principality independent of Wales fell to the hands from the English monarchs from the Statut from Rhuddlan in 1284. Through the Act of Union (1707), England (including the Wales) and Scotland - which were already plain since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, are reflected agreement for a political union in the form of a Royaume of Great Britain . Act of Union of 1800 has unified the United Kingdom, which was called at the time Royaume of Great Britain and the Royaume of Ireland, which slowly fell under English control between 1541 and 1691, to form the the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. The independence of the Irish Republic in 1922 followed the separation of the island of Ireland two years before with six of the new counties of the province of Ulster remaining attached to the United Kingdom what thus carries out in 1927 to the current official name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland .
See also: British Empire
The the United Kingdom of Great Britain played a big role during the Age of Enlightenment with a strong presence in Philosophie and Sciences as well as a great influence for the theatrical tradition and literary. Throughout the century which followed, the kingdom took a big part in the development of the Western ideas of the parliamentary Démocratie with a remarkable contribution in the Littérature, the Art S and the Science S. the richness of the British Empire, like the other great powers, was also partly generated by the colonial exploitation of which industrialization after 1750 of the Commerce of slaves with the British fleet of the 18th century; most imposing at the time. However at the beginning of the 19th century, Great Britain passed the Slave Trade Act (the Act slave commercial) in 1807 and became the first Nation to have abolished the trade of slave durably.
After the Industrial revolution and the defeat of Napoleon at the time of the Napoleonean Wars, Great Britain became the first world power of the 19th century. With its apogee, Empire British, considered to be at the same time the United Kingdom and all the entities of which it is legally separate but that it controls, extended on 1/3 from the emerged grounds and included 1/3 of the world population. The British Empire largest and the most were thus populated that the history knew. It was called commonly the “empire on which the Sun never lies down” ( The worsens one which the sun never sets ); indeed, it is said that there was always part of the empire where it was dawning.
On all the 19th century, the country played a prevalent part in the development of the parliamentary Démocratie, partly by the emergence of a system with multiple political parties and an expansion of the Vote for all. The development of arts and sciences, with personalities like Isaac Newton, watch also the driving role of the United Kingdom in the construction of the cultural heritage and scientist of the 18th century. At the end of the Time victorienne, the United Kingdom lost its industrial monopoly enormously, in particular with the profit of the the United States, which exceeded the country in production and industrial trade with the turning of the Années 1890, and of the German Empire. The country remained a dominating super power nevertheless and its empire reached its maximum surface in 1921.
First World War at our days
After the country is raised of the First World War, the first international media network with large scales was created: BBC. The hard-working movement of the country continued to develop since the end of the 19th century and in 1924 the very first Labor government arrived at the capacity. The United Kingdom fought the Nazi Germany during the Second world war with its allies of the the Commonwealth of which the Canada, the Australia, the New Zealand, the South Africa and the India. Leader in time of war, Winston Churchill and his successor Clement Attlee supported a plan of post-war period like leaves the Big Three . The Second world war for returned as much the United Kingdom very damaged as well physically as financially. The expensive loans of time of war, loans granted by the the United States and the Canada, combined with the assistances of the Marshall plan of the Americans strongly launched the United Kingdom on the way of the rebuilding.
1945 saw the emergence of a Welfare state and one of the first departments of health of most complete whereas the requests for an economy in full rebuilding pushed people of all Commonwealth to build the multi-ethnic United Kingdom. After the Second world war the decolonization starts. India becomes independent in 1945, while Tanganyika and Cameroun pass under supervision of l´ONU. Also, the new political limits of post-war period of the United Kingdom were confirmed by the Crise of Suez Canal of 1956. Ghana becomes independent in 1957, Nigeria in 1960, Zambia in 1964. The decolonization of Southern Rhodesia and l Afric of the South will pose sharp problems.
According to one period of economic stagnation and industrial disagreements during the Years 1970 after a total reduction in the economy, the Années 1980 were the years to be able of Margaret Thatcher, under which a clear transfer with the economic and political consensus of post-war period carried out, according to its supporters, towards an economic re-establishment but also towards a larger social fracture according to its detractors. Since half of the Years 1990, these tendencies mainly continued under the control of Tony Blair.
The United Kingdom is member of the European Union since 1973. The attitude of the current government relating to so more or less integration with the Union is fuzzy. The Conservative party supports a return to the state of certain capacities and capacities whereas the democratic liberals recommends more engagements.
List of the monarchs
- List of the Prime Ministers
See also: Political of the United Kingdom
GovernmentThe United Kingdom is, as its name indicates it, a kingdom, but the capacity of the British monarch (currently the queen Elisabeth II) is de facto entirely ceremonial. This one reigns but does not control. The executive power of this parliamentary monarchy is exerted, in the name of the Queen, by the Prime Minister (currently Gordon Brown), and the other Ministers for the cabinet. The cabinet is thus the government of Its Majesty. Its ministers come and are responsible before the Parliament: it is the legislative body considered very often as supreme. The United Kingdom is one of the rare countries of the current world where the constitution is not codified. It consists of constitutional conventions and various elements resulting from habits and the common law , together that one often indicates under the denomination of constitutional law British set up since William the Conqueror (1066).
Foreign relationsThe United Kingdom is member of NATO, the European Union and the G8. He is also permanent member of the Safety advice of the United Nations. He also has the nuclear deterrence.
As a successor of immense the British Empire, the United Kingdom exerts an unquestionable influence all over the world, still reinforced by the extensive use of its language and its exclusive relation with the the United States of America.
The United Kingdom has three distinct Systèmes of law: the English Right ( English Law ), which applies to the England and the Wales, and the Droit north-Irish ( Northern Ireland law ) are based on the principles of Common law . The Scottish Droit ( Scots law ) is a hybrid system based on the principles of civil law. The Acte of Union of 1707 guarantees the system of the laws separated for Scotland.
The House of Lords is the high court for the criminal and civil cases of England, Wales and Northern Ireland and for the civil cases only in Scotland. Recent changes of the constitution will see the capacities of the House of Lords transferred to the news Supreme court from the United Kingdom in 2009.
See also: Subdivisions of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, often called home nations (nations of origin) or countries constituent. Each nation, as for it, is divided by the local governments. The Queen names a Lieutenant-Lord as an staff representative of various specific zones through the Kingdom. The following table briefly draws up a description of the four constituent countries:
Note: The overseas territories are territories which are under sovereignty and the formal control of the United Kingdom but which are not part of the Kingdom itself.
See also: Geography of the United Kingdom
The major part of the England has a relief relatively low except in the north and in the peninsula of Cornouailles. The two principal rivers are the the Thames (346 km) and the Severn (354 km) which is more the long course of water of the United Kingdom. Close to the town of Dover ( Dover ), the Channel tunnel connects the Great Britain to the France.
The geography of the Scotland is varied, with its lowlands south and its highlands in north and the west - including the Ben Nevis (1 344m) culminating point of the United Kingdom (however exceeded by the Mount Paget (2 934 m), in South Georgia, culminating point of the overseas territories of the United Kingdom).
One finds there the long ones and deep arms of the sea which penetrate the earths. Scotland has nearly 800 islands, being located for the majority at the west and the north of the country, in particular the Hébrides, the the Orkneys ( Orkney Islands ) and the the Shetland. Although Edinburgh is the capital, rich person of a beautiful historical and architectural heritage, the principal city is Glasgow.
The Wales ( Cymru in Welsh) remains in majority a mountainous ground. Its culminating point, the mount Snowdon ( Yr Wyddfa ) culminates to 1.085 Mr. Cardiff ( Caerdydd ), capital Welshwoman since 1955, is at the south. The majority of the populations are in the south, in particular in the cities such as Swansea, Newport and Cardiff. More the big city in the North-East Wrexham.
The Northern Ireland left the inheritance of the United Kingdom. Lough Neagh is more the big lake of British Isles with its 388 km ². The lake is located about at 30 km in the south-west of Belfast. The Slieve Donard is more the high summit of Northern Ireland, and culminates with 849 meters.
On the whole, it is estimated that the United Kingdom has nearly a thousand of islands; 800 for only the Scotland. The majority of these islands are natural but certain were created artificially using stones and of wood
- List of extreme points of the United Kingdom
See also: Economy of the United Kingdom, List of British companies
The town of London is an economic and commercial major center level of mégapoles such as New York City or Tokyo. During 25 years, the British economy was seen being indicated by certain since the years 1980 like models it Anglo-Saxon being based in particular on the principles of liberalism, open market and weak taxation. The United Kingdom is - from its rate of commercial exchanges - the fifth world economic power with a GDP of 2370 billion dollars in 2006 (right in front of the France with a GDP of 2229 billion dollars in 2006) and the second of Europe after the Germany.
The British were the first to enter the era of the Industrial revolution in, like the majority of the countries in process of industrialization at the time, in particular developing an heavy industry such naval construction, mining industry, the production of steel and the textile. The Kingdom has creates a market overseas British products enabling him to dominate the international market lasting the 19th century. However, from at the same time the industrialization of the other countries and the job loss in agriculture, the United Kingdom saw its economic advance decreasing compared to the others. Consequently, heavy industry slowly declined throughout the 20th century. For as much, the Tertiary sector, him, developed appreciably and now makes nearly 73% of British GDP.
The tertiary sector of the United Kingdom is dominated by the finance departments, in particular in the banking field and of the insurance. London is the greatest financial center of the world grace in particular to the Bourse of London (in: London Stock Exchange ), to the International London Financial Future and options Exchange and to the Lloyd' S off London all located in the City, coarsely is equivalent to Defense of Paris. The capital has also the strongest concentration of the foreign branches of banks of the world. During these last decades, a financial center on banks of the the Thames developed in the district of the Docklands which then accommodated the offices of the banks HSBC and Barclays. There exists a certain number of multinationals which are not based in the United Kingdom having chosen for European or foreign head office London; for example the first financial group of the world, Citigroup. Also note that Edinburgh has consequent financial centers.
The Tourisme holds a major share of the British economy: with more than 27 million tourists per annum, the United Kingdom is the sixth world tourist destination - however far behind its neighbor the France with 60 million tourists and thus first world tourist destination.
The secondary industry, as for him, amply decreased since the Second world war. There remains a big part of the economy nevertheless on the other side of the channel. British motorized industry composes of it a major part decreased well nevertheless since collapse of MG Rover. The production of civil aircrafts and military is directed by the largest aerospace firm of the United Kingdom: BAE Systems and European EADS (leader of Airbus). Rolls-Royce holds a major share of the division on the global market of motorized aerospace. Chemical industry and pharmaceutical is, it also, powerful with the seconds and sixth great names of the drug company in the world: respectively GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, both based in the United Kingdom.
The agricultural sector accounts for to him only 0,9% of the GDP Because of the climate l´agriculture covers only the food half of the needs and is splashed by scandals (mad cow, foot-and-mouth disease)
The United Kingdom has important energy richnesses: coal, gas, oil… although these two last are in reduction. The production of primary energy is responsible for 10% of the British GDP, a part much more significant than the majority of the industrialized countries.
The currency of the United Kingdom is the Pound sterling (in English Pound sterling ) represented by the symbol “£ “. The Banque of England is the central bank which manages in particular the manufacture of the coins and tickets. The banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland reserve the right to put in circulation their own tickets, in condition however of maintaining a number sufficient of banknotes of England in reserve to cover putting into circulation. The United Kingdom preferred not to adopt the Euro during the launching of this currency in 1999 although the government envisaged to hold a referendum to decide adoption of the currency if “five economic tests” appear conclusive. The British opinion is against.
See also: Demography of the United Kingdom
PopulationWith the census of April 2001, the population of the United Kingdom was of 58.789.194 inhabitants, that is to say the third of the European Union after the Germany and the France. In two years this population would have passed to 60,2 million, must clearly with the Immigration but also with a higher rise of the birthrates and Life expectancy Nearly a quarter of the British live in the prosperous south of the England and are mainly an urban population with a number estimated at 7.517.700 inhabitants only for the London capital The rate of elimination of illiteracy amounts to 99% and the school is obligatory there as of 5 years until the 16 years age (15 for the natives at the end of July or August)
Immigration and ethnicity
Immigration, nowadays, comes mainly from Europe and the countries which formed formerly the British Empire. Since the Second world war, the United Kingdom absorbed a substantial immigration whose three principal origins of flows is the Europe, the Africa and the South Asia. In 2001, nearly 13,1% of the population in the United Kingdom was identified as an ethnic minority (of which the Blancs other than British) In certain cities, the percentage of ethnicities is consequent: 40,1% for London, 34,4% with Birmingham and 39,5% with Leicester.
There also exists in the United Kingdom a flow of emigration with approximately 5,5 million British (to include/understand born on the British ground) living abroad. Another life half-million or works abroad over a certain period of the year, in particular in Australia and Spain
See also: Culture of the United Kingdom
University College of London ( UCL ) and the Université of London. In 2007 one counted 112 universities and university colleges . The United Kingdom has also a system of education deprived very wide and developed paradoxically called Public Schools .
the United States and trained innumerable scientists and engineers. One allots to the British scientific discoveries such as the Hydrogène, the Oxygène, the Gravité, the electron S, the structure DNA and of the inventions like the Télévision, the modern Vélo, the Ordinateur. The United Kingdom was also the first country to introduce the radio public continuously, the public transport system by rails and the network of civil and military radar fully operational.
William Shakespeare is regarded as the great writer of the language English E.
- One notes among the English authors:
Wales and Scotland are not in remainders for as much
See also: British Cinema
The British cinema a long time influenced the development of the cinema with for example the Studios Ealing affirming to be oldest existing. In spite of a rich history of success, industry is characterized by ceaseless debates concerning its identity and the influence of the American and European cinema. One counts among the most famous productions:
- Harry Potter
- Monty Python
- James Bond (although American studios, the series used places, castings, teams cinematographic and material British)
- the country counts several orchestras of international repute, the such Symphony orchestra of the BBC, the Philharmonic orchestra of London, the royal Philharmonic orchestra and especially the Symphony orchestra of London, led by Valeri Guerguiev.
- Iron Maiden
- Black Sabbath
- The Beatles
- The Rolling Stones
- Led Zeppelin
- Pink Floyd
- The Kinks
- The Who
- The Sex Pistols
- The Clash
- The Libertines
- The Cleans
- The Kooks
- Arctic Monkeys
- the R.U also contributed to the expansion of kinds such as the Goth, the Techno the House music, the heavy metal, the Electronic music, the pop, the R' B and other kinds also varied only innumerable:
BBC One, BBC Two, ITV1, Chanel 4 and Five.
The radio is dominated by Radio operator BBC including its two principal stations Radio operator BBC 2 (station general practitioner, which is the radio most listened in the United Kingdom, with 13,7 million weekly listeners) and BBC Radio operator 1 (musical station).
Traditionally one can divide the newspapers into two categories, those known as of quality , others more popular standard tabloïds, newspapers with gossip. The Sun is the English daily newspaper more diffused in the world (1/4 of the British market). Off exist also the News the World , The Daily Telegraph , The Guardian , and The Financial Times .
SportThe Football, the Rugby, the Cricket and the Golf have a whole a common point: they all are originating in the United Kingdom.
The most popular sport is football. The Kingdom does not play as such but each country has its own team. One notes many clubs famous such Arsenal, Chelsea, Newcastle United, Liverpool, and Manchester United for England; Celtic and Rangers for Scotland.
- the oldest Monarchy of the world: since 1066.
- First country to emit postal stamps in 1840 with the Penny Black.
- Makes party of the Anglo-Saxon Monde and of the the Commonwealth
- the format of the date is JJ/MM/AA (example: 3/24/87) or 24 March 1987. One writes also 24th March 1987 (to include/understand: 24e (day) of March) when the date is written literarily
- the hour is generally written in format 12-hours , i.e. with amndt ( Ante Meridiem which means in Latin before midday ) and pm ( Post meridiem oneself After Midi ). The format 24-hours is however used in some official documents, for the schedules and by the soldiers. Note that one uses sometimes a point instead of two small points > 8:00 pm or 8.00pm
- the decimals are separated by a not (French uses a comma) and thousands by a comma (a French space). To illustrate: 60,3 in French gives 60.3 in English. 25.000 in French is written 25,000 in English.
- Tension and electric frequency: 230V (+10%/-6%), 50 Hz
- zip code: the U.K.
- One leads on the left! (See Direction of circulation)
Official names and symbols
The official name of the United Kingdom east
- the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in French
- United Kingdom off Great Britain and Northern Ireland in English
Also, the European Charte of the regional or minority languages recognizes the Welsh, the Scottish , the Irish, the Cornique and the Scots like regional languages of the respectively as follows named United Kingdom:
Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr has Gogledd Iwerddon in Welsh
- An Rìoghachd Aonaichte Na Breatainn Mhòr agus Eirinn has Scottish Tuath in
- Ríocht Aontaithe Na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann in Irish
- An Rywvaneth Unys has Vreten Veur hag Iwerdhon Glédh in Cornique
- Unitit Kinrick O Great Breetain year Northren Ireland in Scots
- the Drapeau of the United Kingdom is the Union so known Flag under the name of Union Jack . If the word " Union" is explicit, the origin of the word " Jack" fact still debate. It east creates superposition of flags of 3 of the components of the United Kingdom:
- England with the Cross of saint Georges (median red on white zone; Saint Georges is patron saint of England)
- Scotland with the Croix of saint André (oblique white on blue bottom overseas; Saint Andre is the owner of Scotland)
- Northern Ireland with the Cross of saint Patrick (red obliques on white zone; Saint Patrick is the owner of Ireland).
the national anthem is God Save the Queen or God Save the King when the monarch is a man. Note however that the true name is God Save the King .
Britannia is the personification of the United Kingdom given during the Roman occupation of the south and the center of the Great Britain. It is symbolized by an young woman with hair either châtains, or fair, capped with a Corinthian helmet and a white dress. It has a three-pronged fork of Poséidon and a shield raising the British flag. It sometimes is described assembling a lion. Britannia is often associated with the maritime power as in the patriotic song: Rule Britannia . It can be compared with our Marianne which however does not symbolize the France but the République.
the Lion is also symbol of the United Kingdom and is present in the royal Armes of the United Kingdom. One finds some behind Britannia on the parts of 50 penny and another is crowned on that of 10 penny. The armorial bearings of England are “of Gueules to three leopards of gold”, i.e. red with three yellow lions looking at the spectator from where the lion like emblem of the English national team of Football and its famous anthem of football Three Lions . The Armorial bearings of Scotland as L royal standard of Scotland present them also a lion.
the old landscapes British, and particularly unquestionable of its distinctive elements like the Oak and the pink , were useful a long time for the visual representation of the British identity. The red rose is the emblem at the same time of the national team of Rugby of England and of the English Fédération of Rugby.
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