See also: the Shetland (homonymy)
The Shetland Islands are a Scottish Archipel (approximately 100 islands including 12 inhabited) which is between the the Orkneys and the Faroe Islands. Norwegian territory until in 1472 when it was rented with the Scottish crown. The inheritance Viking remains important in the cultural life of the archipelago.
GeographyShetland Islands constitute an archipelago located between 59°50' NR and 60°50' NR, et0°45' O and 2°05' O. the territory is very cut out (any point of the islands east to less than 5 km of the sea), of an total surface area of 1.466 km ² (approx. 150 km of north in the south, 60 km of are in west). The population counts 21.940 inhabitants ( shetlandais ). The population density is of 15 hab/km ².
Principal port in the town of Lerwick (southern center of the archipelago, approx. 7500 hab.).
Airport with the southern point with Sumburgh Head (" LSI" for Lerwick Sheltland Island), served by British Airways (sub-contracted by Loganair) since Scotland (Kirkwall in the Orkneys and Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow) and Atlantic Airways (direct of London).
IslandsOn the hundred island S which composes the Archipel, only a fortnight are inhabited. Here are some among the principal ones:
- Mainland, the most important island, on which gathers most of the population, the town of Lerwick and the old capital Scalloway. Oil terminal of Sullom Voe. Many archaeological sites of which some are in the course of excavations (Broch S which are stone turns of the Neolithic , more recent constructions of the Viking S and Scottish);
- Yell, immediately in the north of Mainland, approximately 900 inhabitants;
- Unst, in the north of Yell, inhabited island more in north of the the United Kingdom, approximately 600 inhabitants, old base of radars of the Royal Air Force , important colony of marine birds (Puffin, etc) in the natural reserve of Hermaness, with the northern point of the island;
- Dad Stour, celebrates to have accommodated an important community Hippie in the years 1960-1970.
VegetationExcept for some trees in the central part of Mainland and the center of Lerwick, the ground is deprived of raised vegetation. So the landscapes are completely original for these latitudes. This is the consequence of the massive deforestation carried out by former inhabitants of the islands (probably the norses there is more than 2000 years, thus obliging them to control stone construction). The ground generally consists of peat, still in exploitation like fuel of heating.
ClimateThe climate is wet moderate expenses: 1,2°C January, August 14 °C (maxima of 21°C), 1.037 mm of precipitation per annum (to be compared with the 843 mm of Lyon or 984 mm of Bordeaux). Frequent winds (average forces 4 is 24 km/h), sometimes forts, are responsible for a weather situation always changing (several episodes of beautiful and successive bad weather per day).
Shetland Islands are under the influence of the Gulf Stream, which heats the sea water (6°C the winter, 13°C the summer).
ReliefThis archipelago is distinguished from the Orkneys close by a relief marked (culminating point Ronas Hill, 450 m) taking into account important cutting to the littoral. At the top of Ronas Hill, the midnight sun is visible on June 21st, in spite of the latitude relatively far away from the polar circle.
HistoryThe name of the Shetland as old man Gaélique ( Innse Cat , islands of the people of the cats) lets suggest that the original inhabitants of the island belong to the same tribal group as those of Caithness ( the capital of the people of the cat ) and of Sutherland ( country of the people of the cat ).
During the seventh century, missionaries arrive on the island to try to convert the inhabitants with the Christianisme. The island is conquered by the Viking S in the current of the ninth century and will remain Norwegian during five centuries.
They are only into 1472 that the Écossais will obtain to these islands, as well as the Orkneys, in compensation of the non-payment of the dowry of Marguerite of Denmark, wife of Jacques III. The later attempts of the Scandinavians to repurchase these islands will remain without continuation.
EconomyThe provisioning of oil industry of the the North Sea brings the greatest sector of the economy. Agriculture is strongly represented in the archipelago with the famous Shetland sheep. The other sectors of the economy are the Aquaculture and the fishing.
LanguageThe Picte language was spoken in the archipelago. It was replaced by the Vieux norrois which evolved/moved in Norni (see http://www.verbix.com/documents/norn.htm), which was spoken until the 18th century before being replaced by the Scots. The accent of the inhabitants is very soft and a little singing, and the rate/rhythm of Scansion is slower than in the remainder of Scotland (it is perhaps the insularism, as with the Corsica in France).
The origin of the word the Shetland is the Scandinavian word Hjatland which means highlands . The word then evolved/moved in Hj etland ( Hj being the letter Yogh). Hj was replaced in Z and Z was faded in HS , which gives the Shetland .
CultureEvery year, a truth Drakkar left its Cale dries at the southern end of the port to sail in the Fjord S of the archipelago.
Last Tuesday of January takes place the torchlight procession of Up Helly Aa in Lerwick. Up Helly Aa is a festival which celebrates the heritage Viking of Shetlands. This festival was set up by soldiers returning of the Napoléoniennes wars which had discovered this type of festivities on the Continent.
The currency of the islands east Með lögum skal Land byggja . This currency comes from the old man norrois and means: the country must be built with laws .
- Île of Pressed
- Scottish Site
Simple: The Shetland
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