See also: the Seine (homonymy)
The the Seine is a French Fleuve, length 776 kilometers, which runs in the Paris basin and sprinkles in particular Troyes, Paris and Rouen. Its source is at 470 meters of altitude, with the Saint-Germain-Source-Seine in the plate of Langres, in Coast-with Or. Its course has an general orientation of south-east in the North-West. It is thrown in the Manche, with height of the meridian line of Hode, close to the Havre. Its catchment area, of a surface of approximately 75.000 km ², interests nearly 30% of the population of the country. It is managed by the agency of water Seine-Normandie.
EtymologyThe Seine comes from Latin Sequana , itself borrowed from the Gallic tribes autochtones.
The Yonne and the Seine would have been regarded as binoculars, only the higher course having been called the Seine after transcription by César of the Latin word (I) sicauna in Sequana . One finds the name of Yonne there: Icauna or Icaonna . (The name of the Seine could thus be a diminutive of the name of the Yonne .)
The origin of the name Sequana is obscure. Some see there a transcription error of one or several Celtic words different. Others a Toponym preceltic, with the reason that the group “kw” does not exist into Celtic continental, where it evolved/moved in “p” (example: pimp in Welsh, five <= Indo-European kwenkw ). However, this evolution could occur subsequently to the attribution of the name Sequana by the first Celtic newcomers: those indeed seem to have spoken “proto-Celtic” where the change kw => p was not carried out yet, as would attest it certain inscriptions Celtibère S found in Spain.
GeographyThe weak declivity of the valley of the Seine, in Ile-de-France and Normandy, because the formation of multiples and major Meander S. For the same reason, the effects of the Marée is felt on a hundred km, until Poses (stopping more downstream) and appeared until a recent past, by the phenomenon of the “Mascaret”.
The Seine is a very important inland waterway, connecting Paris to the English Channel. So two of the most important river ports of France are there: Paris (port of Gennevilliers) and Rouen which is also an important seaport allowing the transshipment (it is the first cereal port of Europe). It is navigable upstream of Paris until Nogent-sur-Seine, important cereal port. Other notable river ports: Limay - Porcheville (Mantes-the-Pretty agglomeration of ), Montereau (sites managed by the Port authority of Paris).
Many industries are located along the valley of the Seine, in particular automobile (Poissy, Flins, Cléon, Sandouville), petrochemistry (Port-Jerome, Gonfreville-l' Orcher, Our-Lady-with-Gravenchon, Small-Crown), thermo plants (Porcheville, Saint-Ouen), and nuclear plant (Nogent-sur-Seine).
The artificial lake of the Forest of the East, upstream of Troyes, was created in the years 1960 to regularize the flow of the river.
Curiosity : the sources of the Seine are the property of the town of Paris since 1864. An artificial cave was built the following year to shelter the primary source and the statue of a nymph symbolizing the river. However, the capital ignored some and the piece should return to the area Burgundy which wishes to develop the site. This one also shelters the vestiges of a Gallo-Roman temple. Objects testifying to the worship to the sources of the river (Dea Sequana) are exposed to the archaeological museum of Dijon.
Principal affluents of the Seine
See also: Amorce=Voir the, List of the affluents of the Seine
- the Ource (D) - 100 km
- the Barse (D)
- the Paddle (D) - 248 km
- the Yonne (G) - 293 km (see the polemic)
- the Loing (G) - 166 km
- the School (G)
- the the Essonne (G) - 90 km
- the Barley (G) - 50 km
- the Yerres (D) - 93,5 km
- the the Marne (D) - 525 km
- Beaver (G) - 36 km. The only one to throw itself in Paris.
- the Oise (D) - 302 km
- the Epte (D) - 100 km
- the Andelle (D) - 54 km
- the the Eure (G) - 225 km
- the Risle (G) - 140 km. It is thrown in the estuary of the Seine.
- the Crack (D) - It joined the channel of Tancarville
The crossed departments are while going from the source towards the mouth:
In the area Burgundy:Champagne-Ardenne: Ile-de-France:
- the Essonne
- the Valley-of-Marne
- the Eure
- Apple-brandy (skirted at the extreme end of the mouth)
Among the many communes sprinkled by the Seine, one of them is entirely in an island in the middle of the river: the island-Saint-Denis (Seine-Saint-Denis).
Crossed cities and communesthe Châtillon-on-Seine, the Mussy-on-Seine, the Gyé-on-Seine, the Neuville-on-Seine, the Bar-on-Seine, Fouchères, Saint-Parres-the-Vaudes, Saint-Julien-the-Villas, Troyes, the Méry-on-Seine, Clesles, Romilly-sur-Seine, Nogent-sur-Seine. the Bray-on-Seine, Montereau-Fault-Yonne, Saint-Mammès, Thomery, the Champagne-on-Seine Melun, the Mée-on-Seine. Corbeil-Essonnes, Saint-Germain-the-Corbeil, Évry, Laugh-Orangis, Viry-Châtillon, Savigny-sur-Orge, Draveil, Juvisy-sur-Orge, Athis-Mons the Vigneux-on-Seine. Villeneuve-the-King, Villeneuve-saint-Georges, Valenton, Choisy-the-King, Vitry-sur-Seine, Alfortville, Houses-Alfort, Ivry-sur-Seine, Charenton. Paris. Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Sevres, Saint-Cloud, Suresnes, Puteaux, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Courbevoie, Levallois-Perret, Asnières-sur-Seine, Clichy, Gennevilliers, Villeneuve-the-Garenne, Doves, Nanterre Rueil-Malmaison the island-Saint-Denis, Saint-Denis, Epinay-sur-Seine. Bezons, Cormeilles-in-Parisis, the Hoop-on-Seine, Herblay, Vétheuil, High-Isle, the Rock Guyon Coals, the Career-on-Seine the Croissy-on-Seine, Vésinet, Chatou, Pecq, Bougival, Louveciennes, the Port Marly, Saint-Germain-in-Bush hammer, Sartrouville, Houses-Laffitte, the Mesnil-the-King, Career-under-Wood, Achères, Conflans-Holy-Honorine, Andrésy, Poissy, Carrières-sous-Poissy, the Villennes-on-Seine, Médan, Triel-sur-Seine, Vernouillet, the Be worth-on-Seine, Meulan, the Mézy-on-Seine, Mureaux, Flins, Juziers, Aubergenville, Épône, Wall, Gargenville, Issou, the Wall-on-Seine, Porcheville, Guerville, Limay, Mantes-the-City, Mantes-the-Pretty, Follainville-Dennemont, the Rosny-on-Seine, Guernes, Rolleboise, Méricourt, Holy Martin Garenne, the Mousseaux-on-Seine, Harvest, Freneuse, the Bonnières-on-Seine, Gommecourt, Bennecourt, Jeufosse, Port-Villez, Limetz-Villez.
- the Eure
Geological historyThe Seine formed with the the Loire only one and single river approximately six million years ago. It crossed vast a Pénéplaine of nature Argile uses under a subtropical Climat. Three million years ago, the area undergoes a cooling and a rising due to thrust arch Pyrenean and alpine in the south. The Glaciation S of the quaternary era made go up the sea level and oceans, so that the Seine threw itself then to broad current Brittany (the Manche did not exist). This period was marked by the migration of the Méandre S of the river, still visible in particular in High-Normandy, and of intense a erosion planing the plates and formant of the alluvial terraces. The current aspect of the Seine goes back to the end of the last glaciation, towards -12.000.
HydrologyThe Seine has a relatively regular mode, related to the oceanic climate of its catchment area. It is nevertheless prone to important risings which required important work of regulation in the upper part of its course and its affluents. Its medium flow in Paris east of approximately 328 m ³ /s and can exceed 1600 m ³ /s in period of rising.
Four large lake-tanks were created between 1960 and 1990 on the Seine (Lac of the East), the Marne (Lac of DER-Chantecoq), the Aube (Lake Amance and lake of the Temple) and the Yonne (Lac of Pannecière). These lakes which constitute a reserve of 800 million m ³ at the same time make it possible to chop the risings and to ensure a minimum flow of low water level. They are managed by a public corporation, the institution interdépartementale of the storage dams of the basin of the Seine.
With Paris, the risings are measured since 1876 by hydrometric scale installed with the Pont of Austerlitz, nevertheless it is the statue of the zouave of the Pont of Alma which remains the most popular indicator. In January 1910, water reached on this scale the height record of 8,68 meters.
See also: Flow from the Seine in Paris
For the marines and the services navigation, the Seine breaks up into:
- : The small Seine of the Méry-on-Seine to Montereau-Fault-Yonne
- : The high Seine of Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris
- : The Parisian Seine in Paris
- : The low Seine of Paris with Rouen
- : The Maritime Seine of Rouen to the sea
The Seine is navigable on most of its course. The responsibility for navigation belongs to inland Waterways of France and in particular to the Service of navigation on the Seine upstream of Amfreville. The basin of this Service of Navigation of the Seine also extends to its principal affluents (Oise, Marne, Yonne) and sometimes to channels which are connected there (Canal of the High-Seine until Méry, for example). On the other hand, it does not include/understand the Parisian channels: (Channel of Ourcq, Channel Saint-Denis and Channel Saint Martin's day which is managed by the Town of Paris.
The low Seine, downstream from the Guillaume-the-Conquering bridge with Rouen is accessible to the ocean liners (up to 280 m of length and 150.000 tons). This part of the river, approximately 120 km, offers a Headroom of 50 meters and a Mouillage of 10 meters minimum. The harbor installations concern there the authority of the Port authority of Rouen. This one, fifth French seaport, ensures an important cereal traffic, manure and oil products.
Between Rouen and Paris, the Seine was channeled at the 19th century. Seven locked stoppings located at Installations - Amfreville, Our-Lady-of-the-Garenne (the Eure), Méricourt, Andrésy, Bougival, Chatou (Yvelines) and Suresnes (Hauts-de-Seine] allow the navigation of self-propelled barges (350 T of freight), of motorized barges of river (from 800 to 1350 T of freight), of convoys of thorough Barge S (from 3000 to 10000 T of freight) and of fluvio-maritime coasters (4000 T of freight). The harbor installations located in Île-de-France raise of the Port authority of Paris first French river port. The principal harbor installations for the goods traffic are located at Limay (Yvelines) and Gennevilliers (Hauts-de-Seine).
In Paris exists also a movement of travellers, mainly tourist (water-buses, but also an attempt to use the Seine for daily displacements (Batobus - to see external bonds below). Shuttles circulate regularly between the Eiffel Tower and the botanical garden; however, this service seems to interest the tourists more that the Parisian ones creating an awkward competition for the water-buses.
A project of inland waterway to large gauge between the basin of the Seine and the basin of the the Scheldt, the Liaison the Seine-Scheldt should be carried out by 2012, doubling the Canal of Saint-Quentin (1810) and the channel of North (1960). It will put in communication the Norman ports and the Ile-de-France with the navigable network of the north of France and the Benelux countries by offering the gauge of the European Vb class.
Downstream from Rouen, only three large bridges span the Seine (bridges of Brotonne, Tancarville and Normandy). So the crossing can still be done thanks to several vats connecting two banks.
HistoryThe oldest rising of the Seine reported in the texts old is that of winter 358, reported by Julien the Apostate, who was then in Lutèce, in his Misopogon . That of February 852 is brought back by Gregoire de Tours in his Historia Francorum .
As of 855, bands of Viking S go up the Seine, plunder the Normandy and besiege Paris. The Vikings settle in a permanent way in the mouth of the Seine towards 896. Starting from the Treated Saint-Clearly-on-Epte in 911, the Duché of Normandy is recognized by the king of France Charles III. Its limit is a small affluent of Right Bank of the Seine, the Epte.
Starting from the middle of the 16th century and until the beginning of the 20th century, the supply firewood of Paris was done by floatation on Yonne and the Seine starting from the forests of the Morvan.
In 1684, the king Louis XIV inaugurates the Machine of Marly installed in the bed of the Seine with Bougival to pump the water of the river in order to feed the dancing waters of the Parc of Versailles.
In 1944, in the night from August 19th to 20th, of the advanced elements of the American army cross the Seine for the first time by borrowing the stopping of Méricourt. Thereafter a bridge of boats installed with Mantes-the-Pretty made it possible to establish a head of bridge on Right Bank.
PolemicA polemic exists on the fact that it is well the Seine which runs with Paris. Some consider that it is not the water of the Seine but that of the Yonne which one finds mainly under the Parisian bridges.
To their junction, Yonne indeed has a medium flow (93 m ³ /s) and a size of area catchment (close to 10 800 km ²) higher than those of the Seine (hardly 80 m ³ /s and 10 300 km ²).
Upstream still: the Seine (4 000 km ²) would be only one tributary of the Paddle (4 700 km ²).
Historically and culturally, it is since Yonne that the principal river invasions of Paris took place.
These elements thus justified the idea that it is Yonne which runs in Paris and not the Seine. One finds as the assumption as at the origin the priests and druids of the sources of the Seine would have imposed the idea of a superiority of their river.
Another assumption advances that the name of " Sequana" would have been given to a commercial axis , without preoccupation with a flow nor length of course. Indeed, of Yonne, of the Paddle and the Seine, it is the latter which is most easily accessible since the the Saone for the transit from the goods of the Mediterranean to the Paris basin.
However, that has little importance when one looks at the etymology mot. And, at all events, it would be difficult to change this designation. The name of the Seine is associated too much today with that of Paris .
The Seine and painters
The Seine inspired by many painters, and in particular at the 19th century and 20th centuries, the following painters:
It is difficult also to make the dead end on the very interesting sights of the Parisian Seine at the 18th century by Nicolas-Jean-Baptist Raguenet.
TourismThe course of the Seine is marked out many points of interests for the tourists.
Upstream of Paris:
- sources of the Seine with the Saint-Germain-Source-Seine
- Troyes and its old center with its churches and its cathedral
- Moret-sur-Loing which is very close to the confluence of the Loing with the Seine
- Thomery and the forest of Fontainebleau
- the forest of Sénart
Downstream from Paris:
- Bougival and its park of the Snap fastener on the island of Bougival whose prolongation is the island of Chatou
- Chatou and its Maison Furnace, painted by the Impressionnistes
- Conflans-Holy-Honorine and the Musée of shipping (Yvelines)
- the Rock-Guyon and its castle (Val-d'Oise), which inspired the author of cartoons Edgar P. Jacobs who located at it one of the adventures of Blake and Mortimer, " the trap diabolique"
- Giverny and the house of Claude Monet (the Eure),
- Andelys and the Castle-Strapping man,
- Rouen, the city with the hundred bell-towers (Seine-Maritime),
- the Bridge of Tancarville
- the Bridge of Brotonne
- the Bridge of Normandy,
- Honfleur and its port
- Le Havre rebuilds by the architect Auguste Perret after the Second world war.
Fishing in the SeineThe shores of the capital are Poisson neux. Water quality improved in the years 2000. Twenty-five years before, it was disadvised consuming the product of its fishing. From now on it is possible. The silures, pikes and carps are the most widespread species in Paris and its outskirts of the city. The two larger catches listed to date are a Silure of 58 kg and a pike of 118 cm.
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