See also: the Rhine (homonymy)
The the Rhine ( German Rhein in , Rijn in Dutch, fluvius Latin Renus in , Rain in Romanche) is a long Fleuve of: 1320 Kilometer S and draining a basin of: 225000 km ² sprinkled well, the Rhine are the first river of Western Europe.
GeographyIt takes its source in the the Alps on the sides of the Saint-Gothard, in the east of the Suisse (canton of the Grisons) and results in fact from the junction from two rivers, named “the former Rhine” and “the posterior Rhine”. After its passage by the Lake of Constancy (Bodensee), it continues by the falls close to Schaffhouse and joins, upstream of Basle with the Aar. The Rhine goes down then towards North in the middle of the higher plain from the Rhine, receiving the It and the Lauter on its left, the Neckar on the right. With Mainz, it receives the Main and turns left, to then cross towards north the Rhenish schistous Massif, where it enlarges Lahn on the right and the Moselle on the left with Coblentz. In this section, the valley of the river is tightened and boxed, it is what is called the " valley héroïque" , dominated by many medieval castles in charge of history and legends (in particular the Lorelei). To Bonn finally, it enters the plain. It is thrown in the the North Sea by mixing partially its water with those of the Meuse in a large delta.
Its bed crosses or skirts six countries: the Swiss , the Liechtenstein, the Austria, the Germany, the France and the Netherlands. It constitutes the natural border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Austria, Germany and Switzerland and Germany and France. It crosses what one names the Rhenish Europe, the most dynamic area of Europe and one of most dynamic of the world.
Its character of international Frontière is relatively recent, except for the period when the Roman empire had made of it its northern rampart against the Barbare S, with a border ( Limes ) punctuated of forts, such Cologne or Strasbourg. Between the fall of the Roman Empire and the conquest of the Alsace by Louis XIV, this river was an integral part and one of the leavens of the Germanic world, which called it Vater Rhein , the paternal Rhine.
The traces of the History are especially visible in the Mittelrheintal between Bingen and Coblentz that UNESCO recognized world cultural heritage in 2002. On the slopes at the edge of the Rhine trônent the strong castles, above the Vigne S escarpées. The tourists who want to make the experiment of the Romantisme are attracted here by the Mythe of the Lorelei.
EconomyBetween Basle and its estuary, the Rhine crosses one of the zones densément populated Western Europe, historically rich in mutual exchanges. This sector is the heart of the European Dorsale.
The Rhenish valley was also the cradle of the one of the principal sites of the Industrial revolution: the the Ruhr, which profited from an important layer of mining resources and in particular of coal, easy of accesses and favorable to the development of industrialization.
The final Act of the Congrès of Vienna devoted, in 1815, the principle of the freedom of navigation on the international rivers.
En 1831 with the the First Rhenish convention or Acte of Mainz the cities lost the right of pile by Since the “Convention of Mannheim” of 1868, the Rhine is classified international water since the last bridge of Basle until the the North Sea, ensuring the Suisse an free access with the sea. The seat of the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine is with Strasbourg. Founded in 1815 at the time of the Congress of Vienna, it acts of the most former international organization.
In 2002, UNESCO registered the 65 km of the Vallée of average Haut-Rhin in the Liste of the world heritage with the rock of the Lorelei close to the town of Saint-Goar.
The Rhine gave its name to two French Départements:
- the Low-Rhine
Delta of the RhineWith the Netherlands, the Rhine forms large a Delta, partially divided with the Meuse. It is divided into several arms, whose principal ones are:
- Waal, prolonged by Merwede higher, Merwede lower, New Merwede, New Meuse, rivers connected to many others, of which Noord and Dordtsche Kil.
- Channel of Pannerden, which the Linge leaves and who separates in:
- IJssel, towards north, which throws in the IJsselmeer
- the lower Rhine, towards west, which continues like Lek and joined the Nouvelle Meuse
- Kromme Rijn, which is detached from the lower Rhine and which continues like Leidse Rijn and Vieux the Rhine
- Dutch IJssel, between Lek and Vieux the Rhine
- “ Der Rhein, Deutschlands Strom, river mouth nicht Deutschlands Grenze ” (“the Rhine, river of Germany, but not border of Germany”) (Arndt which answers the French doctrines of the natural borders expressed by Convention.
- “There is all the history of Europe (…) in this river of the warriors and thinkers, in this superb wave which makes leap France, in this major murmur which makes dream Germany. The Rhine joins together all. ” the Rhine , Victor Hugo, 1842.
- List of rivers in the world
- Plane Delta
- Valley of average Haut-Rhin
- the agency of water Rhine-Meuse
- Given hydrological
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