See also: Odyssey (homonymy)
the Odyssey (in Greek old Ὀδυσσεία / Odusseía ) is a epopee allotted to the Aède Homère, cash: 12109 hexameters dactylic, distributed of 24 songs. One thinks that she was written after Iliade , towards the end of eighth century BC She is regarded as one of the big bosses of works of the world literature and one of the two poems founders (with Iliade) of European civilization.
Summary of the account
She reports the fall of Troy and the return of Ulysses, king of Ithaque, after the war subject of Iliade . The title Odyssey (in Greek old Ὀδυσσεία / Odusseía ) is formed on the Greek name of Ulysses ( Ὀδυσσεύς / Odusseús ). The subject is summarized in the first stanza of the poem:
Ἄνδρα μοι ἔννεπε, Μοῦσα, πολύτροπον, ὃς μάλα πολλὰ
πλάγχθη, ἐπεὶ Τροΐης ἱερὸν πτολίεθρον ἔπερσε·
πολλῶν δ' ἀνθρώπων ἴδεν ἄστεα καὶ νόον ἔγνω,
πολλὰ δ' ὅ γ' ἐν πόντῳ πάθεν ἄλγεα ὃν κατὰ θυμόν,
ἀρνύμενος ἥν τε ψυχὴν καὶ νόστον ἑταίρων.
“O MUSE, tells to me the adventure of the Inventive one:
that which plundered Troy, which during years wandered,
seeing many cities, discovering many uses,
suffering much from anguishes in its heart on the mer
to defend its life and the return of its sailors. ”
“It is the man with the thousand turns, MUSE, which should be said to me,
That which such an amount of wandered, when, of Troade, it had plundered the Holy City,
That which visited the cities of so many men and knew to them esprit
That which, on the seas, passed by so many anguishes,
While fighting to survive and bring back its people. ”
The construction of the poem made follow one another three " moments" , of which the sometimes problematic articulation (in particular on the level of the chronology: the change from point of view between Télémaque and Ulysses implies an immobilization of time for the character who is forsaken, a " time mort") and of the rather significant differences in style (but not on the register, except for the 624 last ones towards) a long time made think that they were three distinct works, which would have been joined together a posteriori and welded to become the current Odyssey:
Télémachie (songs I to IV): Télémaque share to ask for news of his/her father Pylos and Sparte, to question Nestor and Ménélas. During this time, the applicants, in Ithaque, feast while waiting for that Pénélope chooses one of them, and plot against Télémaque.
accounts (of Ulysses) at Alcinoos (songs V to XII): collected by the king Alcinoos after his shipwreck, Ulysses intends a Aède to recite the episode of the Trojan horse (song VIII), then tells itself his adventures.
the revenge on Ulysses (songs XIII to XXIV): returned in Ithaque, Ulysses is made recognize his close relations, massacres the applicants and brings back peace in the island.
The majority of the homerists currently tends to admit the total unit of work and allots the disparate observable ones at the same time to the oral composition and the ambition of the narrative intention of the poet.
Details of the account
The history starts whereas Ulysses is retained captive on the island of the nymph Calypso is unable to return at his place to find his wife Pénélope. All the gods are favorable for him, except Poséidon which him wants some to have returned to blind man his son Polyphème (episode told in song IX). Whereas Poséidon left to feast in Ethiopia, the others gather and Athéna request with Zeus to make it possible Ulysses to return. Zeus agrees to it and sends Hermes to require of Calypso to release Ulysses.
Athéna goes to the island Ithaque for advising Télémaque, the son of Ulysses, to assemble the Achaens to denounce the applicants of Pénélope, then to leave towards Pylos and Sparte to take news on the return of his/her father.
The second day, Télémaque vainly tries to call upon the conscience of the applicants who refuse with contempt. Télémaque borrows a ship and, accompanied by Mentor, goes night in Pylos.
Télémaque leaves the following day in the tank towards Sparte where it is received by Ménélas and Helene. The sixth day, Ménélas describes its return of Troy and announces that Protée, the “old man of the sea”, said to him that Ulysses still lives in captivity on an island. There invite Télémaque to remain a few days, offers that he refuses, even if he proves that it will remain even longer in Sparte. During this time with Ithaque, the applicants learn that Télémaque left to research his/her father and decide to tighten a trap to him.
The seventh day, of return on the Olympe, Athéna reiterates its request to release Ulysses and Hermes is sent to present the message to Calypso. The maintenance of Calypso and Hermes that of Ulysses and Calypso succeeds. The hero prefers to turn over near his wife, although it is mortal (towards 218-219).
Zeus announces that Ulysses will join the Phéaciens after 20 days of navigation and that those will lead it to Ithaque.
Ulysses builds an emergency raft with which it will leave to it twelfth day. After having sailed 18 days, he sees Corcyre. However, Poséidon raises a storm against him and it can accost only the 32e day.
The following day, according to an arrangement of Athéna, Ulysses becomes acquainted with Nausicaa, the girl of Alcinoos, the king pheacian. Ulysses addresses a long discourse to Nausicaa and this one accepts to help it.
With the assistance of Athéna, Alcinoos receives it with the palate and accepts to help it, Ulysses described his arrival in Phéacie, without revealing its identity.
The following day, Alcinoos invites Ulysses with a banquet in his honor. A Aède sings the quarrel of Ulysses and Achilles, and Ulysses is taken tears with this memory. To change the ideas of its host, Alcinoos orders plays impromptus. Then the aède takes again its songs, among which the account of the Trojan horse. Ulysses betrays himself then, and agrees to tell his tour.
( Beginning of the account of Ulysses )
He then makes the account of the voyage two years, between the fall of Troy and his captivity on the island of Calypso. He reports the departure with a fleet of twelve ships when the winds pushed them towards the city of the Cicones, Ismare. They took the city by surprised and reflect it with bag. Little hastened to set out again the same evening, they was attacked by Cicones which had gone to seek of the assistance in the neighbors and had to flee with haste. From there, the winds carried them at the Lotophages, probably in an unknown part of the world. These people of a great hospitality accommodated them and their food offered to them: the Lottos. Whoever ate of this fruit did not wish more to set out again and Ulysses had to bring back of force some members of his fleet. They sailed then towards the island of the Cyclops where, made captive by Polyphème which was going to devour them, they could escape by boring its single eye, thus causing the ire of Poséidon (the father of Polyphème).
( Continuation of the account of Ulysses )
The companions of Ulysses and he even left for the island Éole which tried to help them to return, then towards Télépyle, the city of the Lestrygons cannibals. Ulysses could flee only with one ship towards the island of Circé, where they remained one year. This enchanter opened her doors with an small group directed by Euryloque which, being wary, was the only one to remain outside. The men who entered were transformed into pigs at the time of the meal and Euryloque set out again towards the ship. Ulysses ran to save his companions, meeting in Hermes way which will give him an antidote, the Moly. The magician, éprise of Ulysses, decided to return her men in their human forms to him and invited them to benefit from its hospitality.
After one year, Ulysses decided to set out again. Circé invited them to visit the Enfers so that the phantom of Tirésias shows the way of the return to them.
( Continuation of the account of Ulysses )
Unloaded in country cimmérien, Ulysses proceeded to the sacrifice, as indicated by Circé. Tirésias arrived, and Ulysses learned that they were not to touch with the cattle of Hélios, the god of the Sun, if they wanted to return on their premises. He could also speak with the phantom about his mother who announced to him that Pénélope awaited it always accurately. Lastly, he saw his former companions, of which Achille, which informed him of its regret of the life, and damnés of the Tartar .
( Fine of the account of Ulysses )
They turned over to see Circé, then set out again at sea, avoided the Sirènes, Charybde and Scylla in spite of the loss of some members of the crew. Once on the island of Trinacrie, famished and not being able to set out again because of the storm, they devoured the herds of Photogravure which saw them top of its tank. Seul Ulysses, which had not eaten cattle, escaped the punishment from Zeus which capsized the ship with all its men. Ulysses, floating on a raft during ten days, arrived at the island of Calypso where it spent the eight following years.
The next day, the thirty-fifth, Phéaciens offer a ship, a crew and present to him. The evening, after a banquet, free Ulysses these people to return at his place.
The following day, it reaches its fatherland. Athéna, initially disguised as a young shepherd, accommodates it. It informs it of the schemes of the applicants of Pénélope and disguises it as an old man so that he can see what occurs at his place. It then leaves to find its honest pig-keeper, Eumée.
Ulysses, disguised while begging, is accommodated by Eumée which offers hospitality to him. This last refuses to believe that Ulysses is still in life, in spite of the assertions of the beggar.
During this time, Athéna leaves to seek Télémaque with Lacédémone where it had remained for one month. She advises to him to return in her country and of going to Eumée. According to its council, he escapes a ambush and arrives two days later in the pig-keeper.
The thirty-ninth day, it thus meets his/her father that nobody still recognized under the disguise. After having listened to Eumée, Télémaque requires of him to go to see Pénélope to prevent it of its return. Once the servant left, Athéna reveals the identity of Ulysses to his son and the two men assemble a plot to get rid of the covetous applicants. The evening, Eumée returns to its hut where Ulysses took again his disguise.
The next day, Télémaque leaves for the city where his/her mother receives it with open arm. Without him to reveal that his/her father is of return, it informs Pénélope that the Calypso nymph retained it on its island. In the afternoon, Ulysses and Eumée reach the city and Ulysses is made pass for a beggar. The old dog of Ulysses, Argos, dies by recognizing its Master. After some minor conflicts during which the applicants insult the beggar, Ulysses finds Télémaque.
Iros, beggar appointed of Ithaque, insults Ulysses disguised while begging. A brawl bursts, which Ulysses leaves victorious. Guided by Athéna, Pénélope is shown the applicants, and thus also in Ulysses. The insults with regard to Ulysses continue, but the banquet is completed in a relative calm.
Ulysses and Télémaque seize the weapons fixed on the walls of the palate and place them in sure place. Ulysses speaks then in Pénélope without this one recognizing it. She explains to him why she does not believe that he died and that she does not wish remarier. This is why it pushed back the applicants, making them believe that it wove a shroud for the father of her husband but it demolished each night completed work lasting during the day. Pénélope leaves while ordering to the nurse Euryclée to clean the feet of its guest. By recognizing a scar on the leg of Ulysses, the nurse understands that it is about his king but she promises to maintain the secrecy.
Pénélope returns and announces with its guest that she will agree to marry that which will be able to bandage the arc of her husband and to send an arrow to cross twelve aligned axes, as Ulysses did it.
The 41e day, at the time of the festival of Apollo, the banquet starts. Ulysses again undergoes insults and mockeries. During the meal, the applicants are seized by a disorder. Theoclymene prophesies their disastrous end suddenly, and leaves the assembly on the mockeries.
Pénélope makes prepare the weapons and warns its applicants of its decision. However, none them can even bandage the arc of Ulysses. This one made sign with two of its servants who had admitted it to close the doors. Ulysses bandages the arc without problem and makes a success of the test. Télémaque, out of weapons, joined his/her father.
Ulysses cuts down Antinoos before being made recognize, then it starts to massacre the applicants the ones after the others with the assistance of Télémaque. Athéna appears and influences the battle. Ulysses then makes hang the maidservants accessory to the applicants and purifies his palate with sulfur.
The evening, Ulysses joined Pénélope which still doubts. In agreement with Télémaque, it delays the advertisement of the news of died of the applicants. Pénélope puts her husband to the test while lying to him on their bed. Ulysses, by revealing the characteristics of the bed, is finally made recognize. They are fallen into the arms and tell the sufferings which they underwent during all these years.
Number of homéristes consider that the authentic poem is completed with the worms XXIII 296, which sobrement evokes the carnal meeting again of the two husbands and who all that follows was added subsequently, like song X of Iliade (Dolonie).
In an extremely complex and technical debate, two facts are irrefutable:
- the grammairiens of Alexandria Aristophane and Aristarque recognized the " here; fin" or the " terme" , πέρας, of Odyssey, for reasons which does not seem to have been documentary (i.e because they knew copies of the poem being completed in XXIII 296), but because of a literary verdict
- the last 624 worms of the Odyssey make a sound very different from the remainder: the narration runs the post office on essential points (the conflict with the families of applicants 413-548) whereas it extends very to the length on details less immediately crucial (the arrival of the hearts of the applicants to Hells 1-204, scene which stops the action brutally); the style is much less happy than everywhere else, often hardly more than one purring of formulas.
A rather great number of linguistic facts, in particular of the words new or employed in nonHomeric directions, are not explained if the end of the Odyssey is authentic, therefore goes up at the time antiquated. From this point of view, the demolition by Hartmut Erbse of the arguments against the authenticity drawn from the language and the verbal style (; an excellent english language version exists) was the subject of an exhaustive refutation, for the meeting again of Ulysses and his Laërte father, by J. - F. Nardelli.
As in the case of <>Prométhée the enchaîné> allotted to Eschyle, it is important not to forget that the authenticity of the end of the Odyssey cannot be assumed as self evident.
Hermes leads to the Hells the hearts of the applicants, the other hearts discuss between them the news. On his side, Ulysses finds Laërte, his old father, and is made some recognize. As the news was finally spread in the city, the families of the applicants, carried out by the father of Antinoos, try to avenge their deaths. Athéna interposes then and orders peace between the two camps.
the Odyssey inspired by many works, in very diverse fields:
- Dino de Laurentiis carried out for television a very faithful adaptation in 8 one hour episodes.
- the novel Ulysses of James Joyce (1921) wants to be a rewriting of the Odyssey in modern Dublin, in one day;
- Ulysses 31 is a Cartoon free-Japanese representing the tours of Ulysses of XXXIe century;
- Lob and Pichard took it again in Cartoon, which revisits the Olympe like an assembly the extraterrestrial ones provided with modern technologies: in addition to with wind of Éole is for example a engine, etc This cartoon names Ulysses .
- Jean-Michel Ribes wrote a play the odyssey for a cup of tea taking again the Odyssey in a parodic way.
- the film O' Brother of the Coen brothers is a revisited Odyssey.
- the song The Odyssey de Symphony X, epic of 5 chapters for 24 minutes, telling the return voyage of Ulysses (2002).
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