The Middle East
The the Middle East (in Arab الشرقالأوسط, in Hebrew המזרחהתיכון, English Middle East ) is an expression of Anglo-Saxon origin which indicates for Europeans, the Americans and the Africans, an area ranging between bank Is Mediterranean and the line traced by the border between the Iran on the one hand, the Pakistan and the Afghanistan on the other hand. This area is primarily in Asia but is sometimes extended to the North Africa and the Afghanistan.
This space shelters several cultural groups and ethnic, including the Persian culture, Arab, Turkish, Kurdish and Juive. The four principal linguistic groups are the Iranian Langues, the Arab , the Turkish Langues and the Hebrew . The definition of the Middle East, at the same time established in the books of reference and commonly used, defines the area as “the Nation S of the Asian South-western , of the Iran to the Egypt”. Consequently, the Egypt, with its peninsula of the the Sinai in Asia, is usually regarded as belonging to the Middle East.
This expression was employed for the first time by the military theorist American Alfred Mahan in 1902.
History of the Middle EastSince half of the 20th century, the Middle East is in the middle of the international businesses, and is probably the most significant space strategically, economically, politically and culturally. It abounds in enormous stocks of Pétrole gross. It is the birthplace and the spiritual center of the Judaïsme, the Christianisme and the Islam. This space is also pilot Israeli-Arab Conflit.
BordersThe term of the Middle East defines a cultural surface, therefore it does not delimit precise borders. Generally, one includes Bahrain, the Egypt, the Turkey, the Iran, the Iraq, Israel, the Jordan, the Kuwait, the Lebanon, Oman, the Qatar, the Saudi Arabia, the Syria, the United Arab Emirates, the Yemen and the Palestinian Territoires of the Gaza Strip and the the West Bank.
The Country of the the Maghreb - the Algeria, the Libya, the Morocco and the Tunisia - or others like the Sudan, are related to the Middle East because of their strong religious and historical organizations. The African countries like the Mauritania, the Somalia and the Ethiopia have also bonds with this area. The Turkey and Cyprus, although geographically peripherals or close to the Middle East, regard themselves as belonging to the Europe. The Iran is the border Is. The Afghanistan, as for him, makes already Indian part of the world.
NamesThe qualifier Moyen also involved certain confusions beyond the changeantes definitions. Before the First World War, Near East (translated roughly by the Middle East but with a direction different from that current) was used in English to speak about the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while the term Middle East (the Middle East) referred to the Iran, the Afghanistan, the Turkménistan and the the Caucasus. On the other hand, Far East (translated about by the Far East) referred to the Pays of the East Asia, to the China, the Japan, the Korea, HongKong, Taiwan, etc
With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, Near East had largely been isolated of the everyday usage, while Middle East was applied to the new States of the Islamic world. However, the use of Near East was maintained by a variety of academic disciplines, including the Archéologie and the old Histoire, where it described an identical space at the end Middle East before, while it was not used by these disciplines. This term came when the France and the the United Kingdom adopted it. The French, in particular the academics and certain newspapers like Le Monde , kept the practice to distinguish the Mediterranean Middle East and the general Middle East (with English) or more restricted around the Persian Gulf.
Indirect translationsThere are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in the other European languages, but, since it is a relative description, the significances depends on the country and is generally different from the terms English. See: the Middle East, the Middle East, and Naher Osten (German), for example.
Similar termsBy certain sides, the ambiguity of the the Middle East is an advantage, since it can be used in different Culture S and political circumstances. The ambiguity of the term obstructs certain geographers, who, however, tried to popularize “Asia of South-west” like alternative ( Southwest Asia ), although that had only little success. Others made their appearance like “Asia of the West” ( West Asia ), which became the term of use in India, at the same time by the government and the Médias. The “Arab world” is used in certain contexts, but excludes the populations such as the Turks, the Israéliens, the Iranian and Kurdish which is not Arab S. the “East-Africa Means of North” ( Middle East-North Africa ), which is sometimes used includes/understands the zone active of the Morocco to the Iran. The similar term most widespread is the “Grand the Middle East” ( Greater Middle East ). It is sometimes used, although it is so vague that it is not always useful. It corresponds to a common history of the Empire S and Civilization S including civilization Mediterranean gréco-Roman and Persians as well as vast Arab civilization and the first areas in which the Turks Musulmans settled. That can include/understand the North Africa and the Turkey until the West of the Pakistan and Is Afghanistan.
Areas of the Middle East:
States of the south of the Caucasus
- the Middle East (Mediterranean):
- Anatolia (Turkey)
- Syria, Lebanon, Jordan
- Israel, Palestine (Gaza Strip and the West Bank)
- the Sinai (Egypt)
- Edge of the Red Sea
- States of the Persian Gulf
See: List of the urban surfaces of the Middle-East
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