See also: the Gironde (homonymy)
The department of the Gironde (33) is a French Département located in the south-west of the country in Aquitaine. This department owes its name with the Estuaire of the Gironde (in Occitan Gascon Gironda , in Saintongeais Ghironde ) which occurs after the junction of the the Dordogne and the the Garonne to the nozzle of Ambès, downstream from Bordeaux. The Gironde is the greatest department of Metropolitan France and 2nd after the Guyana.
Historydetailed Article: History of the Gironde
the Gironde is made up of 3 distinct entities, with a historical heritage which is clean for them:
Between 1789 and 1850, the Western part of the department was covered of badly drained moors (on approximately 60% to 70% of space). This moor was maintained by burn-beating in order to provide in food the large herds of Mouton S, supervised by Berger S assembled on stilt S; the use of these last made it possible to achieve more easily of long distances (15 to 20 kilometers per day), while supervising the herd. Before 1857, date of the Law of cleansing and setting in culture of the Moors of Gascogne, the mode agropastoral is generalized: it draws its force in the free use of communal majority. Then the systematization of the plantations of pine S exploited for their Resin (Gemmage) and their wood, accompanied by the sale by communal during second half of the XIXe century, completely modified the landscape and the economy of half of the department.
Policydetailed Article: Political of the Gironde
- Intercommunalités of the Gironde
- List of the deputies of the Gironde
- List of the senators of the Gironde
- List of the general advisers of the Gironde
- List of the prefects of the Gironde
detailed Article: Geography of the Gironde
The Gironde is crossed by the the Dordogne and the the Garonne.
The territory structure in 4 distinct entities:
- the littoral, where some seaside resorts very animated in summer are dispersed. The dunes of the littoral have summers fixed by the man at the XIXe century. The Côte of Money is famous for the Surf.
- the drill landaise, covering the western half of the department. This forest was partly planted at the XIXe century, which marked the end of the agro-pastoral system, largely widespread in the Moors at that time (the image characteristic of this time is that of the shepherd on its stilts). One will practice there the Gemmage until the end of the XXe century.
- the of Bordeaux, wine-producing area where one finds the large farms which make the fame of the wines of Bordeaux.
Bazadais, structured around the town of Bazas. Without real wine production, it is a country of Polyculture; production of Corn, Tobacco, Tomato S, Asparagus S and breeding of the Bazadaise race, as well as wood plantations. The Gascon traditions are goods there anchored. It is the country of Clément V, Gascon pope essentially. It is in this country that one finds the greatest number of historic buildings of the Gironde: Cathedral of Bazas (world heritage of UNESCO), the Castle of Roquetaillade, Trunk, Cazeneuve, Budos, Fargues, Villandraut, collegial of Uzeste.
A western and southern majority of the department belongs to the Gascogne and shelters most of the drill of the Landes of Gascogne. The Gironde profits from a broad coastal opening of 126 km on the Atlantic Ocean, of the Pointe of Low register in the south of the Bassin of Arcachon. The Girondin littoral opened with balneal tourism, in particular around the Bassin of Arcachon. Principal the Seaside resorts is North in the South:
The Dune of Pilat is the principal tourist attraction of the Girondin littoral.
- List of the Common of the Gironde
- List of the Old communes of the Gironde
Climatedetailed Article: Climate of the Gironde
Economydetailed Article: Economy of the Gironde
Demographydetailed Article: Demography of the Gironde
The inhabitants of the Gironde are the Girondins .
Culturedetailed Article: Culture in the Gironde
LanguagesThe Gironde knows two traditional languages:
- the Occitan is the traditional language of almost all Gironde. It is spoken there in three dialectal forms: the Gascon mainly (Bazadais, Medoc, High Moor Of Gironde, Country of Buch), the Languedocien Occitan (Between-Two-Seas, Livornese) and the the Limousin with Puynormand.
- the Poitevin-saintongeais , which belongs to the group of oil, is spoken in three smaller territories:
- in a fringe with the North-East of the department which one calls the Pays Gabay or the Grande Gavacherie . It includes/understands Blaye, Guîtres and Coutras.
- in an enclave in occitan field, in the east of the department, which one calls the Petite Gavacherie (towards Montségur, between Libourne and Réole). But the occitan is also spoken in this zone.
Since the beginning of the XXe century, the State imposed the practice of the French.
- Lamprey with of Bordeaux,
- Ox of Bazas
- Lamb of Pauillac
- High-class wines of the Of Bordeaux.
- Cinnamon of Bordeaux,
- Macaroon S of St. Emilion,
- Oyster S of the Basin of Arcachon,
- Asparagus S of the Blayais.
- Caviar of the estuary of the Gironde.
- the Castle of Roquetaillade
- the Fort of Cordovan
Tourismdetailed Article: Tourism in the Gironde
Of Gironde famous
- the Anonymous of Bordeaux, pilgrim who went to Jerusalem in IVe century
- Aliénor of Aquitaine
- Alain Aslan, sculptor, born the May 23rd 1930
- Etienne of Boétie
- Jacques Chaban-Delmas
- Clément V, French pope
- Rene Clément, scenario writer, born the March 18th 1913 with Bordeaux
- Georges Coulonges born the April 4th 1923 with Lacanau, is a writer and a scenario writer French
- Boris Cyrulnik, psychoanalyst, psychologist and writer, born the July 26th 1937 with Bordeaux
- Xavier Darcos
- Danielle Darrieux, actress, born on May 1st 1917
- Maurice Dubois, painter, born the June 4th 1869
- Christophe Dugarry, footballer, born the March 24th 1972 with Lormont
- Jacques Ellul, philosopher, sociologist and theologist, born the January 6th 1912 with Bordeaux
- Jean Eustace born with Pessac
- Alain Juppe
- Serge LAMA, singer, born the February 11th 1943 with Bordeaux
- No5el Mamère
- Gaston Marchou, writer.
- François Mauriac, writer and journalist, born the October 11th 1885 with Bordeaux
- Edouard Molinaro, scenario writer, born the May 13rd 1928
- Michel de Montaigne, thinker and a French politician of the Rebirth
- Black Desire
- Pierre Palmade, humorist, born the March 23rd 1968 with Bordeaux
- Maurice Ravel
- Elisee Recluse, born with Holy-Foy-the-Large in the Gironde in 1830, is a geographer French, also member of the International Socialist
- Odilon Redon, painter, draftsman and engraver, born the April 20th 1840 with Bordeaux
- Edmond Rostand
- Alain Rousset
- Barbara Schulz, actress, born in 1972 with Bordeaux
- Jean-Jacques Sempé, draftsman, born the August 17th 1932 with Bordeaux
- Michel Slitinsky, writer, historian of Resistance, born the February 5th 1925 with Bordeaux
- Jacques Valade
- French Department
- List of bridges of the Gironde
Prefecture of the Gironde
- General advice of the Gironde
- tourist Guide of the Gironde
- Gallery of air photographs carried out in the Gironde.
- the Inheritance of the Medoc
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