See also: the Crimea (homonymy)
|- | align=" center" colspan=2 style=" to border-bottom: 3px solid Gray; " | |- | align=" center" colspan=2 style=" to border-bottom: 3px solid Gray; " | |- valign=" top" style=" line-height: 1.2em; " |align=" center" colspan=" 2" | national Currency: " Процветаниевединстве" - “Prosperity in unit” |- | Official language | Ukrainian, Russian |- | Capital | Simferopol |- | ''' More big city ''' | Simferopol |- | Prime Minister | Viktor Plakida |- | Сhef of the Parliament | Anatoly Gritsenko |- | Surface | 26.200 km ² |- | Population | 1.994.300 (2005) |- | Currency | Hryvnia (UAH) |- | Time zone | UTC +2 |- | National anthem | Нивыигорытвоиволшебны, Родина |- | Field Internet | .crimea.ua |- | Indicative telephone | +380-65 |- | | |} The the Crimea (Ukrainian: Russian Крим, : Крым, Tatar of the Crimea: Qırım) is a Presqu'île located at the south of the Ukraine, plunging in the Black Sea, constituting a autonomous République. It is connected to the continent by the Isthme of Pérékop. In the North-East is the Mer of Azov. The area, although belonging to the Ukraine, is primarily Russian speaker. It formed part historically of the Ottoman Empire, then of the Russia, before being attached to the Ukraine in 1954. It is the tauric antique Chersonèse.
The area is recognized for its vineyards, its orchards, its places of holidays like its tourist sites. One finds there in particular the towns of Sébastopol, Simferopol and celebrates it town of Yalta, where were signed the Accords of Yalta in 1945, between Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill.
GeographyThe Crimea borders the borders of the area of Kherson in north. The remainder of its borders is the Black Sea in the south and the west, and the Mer of Azov in the east. Its surface is of 26.100 square kilometers, with a population of 2 million inhabitants. Its capital is Simferopol.
The Crimea is connected to the Ukrainian territory by a broad strip of land from 5 to 7 kilometers called the Isthme of Perekop. In the east is the Péninsule of Kertch, which faces directly with the Russian peninsula of Taman. Between the peninsulas of Kerch and Taman is the Détroit of Kertch, broad from 3 to 13 kilometers, binding the Black Sea to the Mer of Azov.
The coasts of the Crimea are irregular and form a great number of ports and bays. These ports are in the western part of the isthmus of Perekop, in Bay of Karkinit. In south-west, in Bay of Kalamita are the ports of Eupatoria, Sébastopol and Balaklava. The Bay of Arabt is in the north of the isthmus of Yenikale. The Bay of Caffa (or Théodosie), with the port of the same name, is in the south.
The south-eastern coast is very mountainous, with a series of parallel mountains, at a distance from 8 to 12 km of the sea: the Yayla-Dagh, or alpine meadow. These mountains are close to one second Azov line more in the back country. 75% of the remainder of surface criméenne are made up of semi-arid meadows, of steppes in the south which skirt by the North-West the feet of Yayla-Dagh. Most of these mountains have tops rather abrupt and impressive, with a difference in altitude raised compared to the so close sea (650 to 750 meters), beginning in the south-western point of the peninsula, called Cape Fiolente. Historically, this point sheltered the Temple of Artémis, where Iphigénie would have officiated as priestess. The grounds which are with the foot of Yayla-Dagh are of a character very other. There, the narrow bands of the coast and the steep slopes of the mountains are covered with greenery. This “Russian Riviera” extends all along the south-eastern coasts, of the Cape Sarich, in the extreme south, in Feodosiya, accommodating many beaches, such Aloupka, Yalta, Gurzuf, Sudak and Théodosie. At the time of the Soviet Union, this area offered many sites of holiday for the elites of the party and the workers highly skilled. Close to Aloupka is located most prestigious camps for children of the ex-USSR, the Artek.
The area of the Crimea shelters many Vigne S and Verger S. One practices fishing along the coasts there. Some mines remain, and one produced essential oils there. One can also find many villages tatars, mosques, monasteries and royal palaces, as well as old castles of the Middle Ages and picturesque Greek ruins.
See also: Chersonèse Taurique
The very first inhabitants were the Cimmériens, which were expelled thereafter by the Scythes during seventh century BC the survivors took refuge in the mountains and became Tauri thereafter. In same time, the Greek colonists started to settle on the coasts and to found colonies: Chersonèsos, Théodosie…
Thereafter, the area was under Roman influence. It was successively occupied by the Goths (250 after J. - C.), the Huns (376), the Bulgares (5th century), the Khazars (8th century), the Rus' of Kiev (10th-11th centuries), the Greek Byzantines (1016), the Kiptchak S (1050) and the Mongolian (1237).
Khanat of the CrimeaOf 1430 with 1783 the Tatars established an independent State, the khanat of the Crimea. In 1475, the khanat was placed under the protection of the Ottoman Empire, to protect itself from the Large Princes of Russia. It became thus vassal Door and paid a tribute. In 1498, Tatars of the Crimea drove out the Polish troops which had ventured in Moldavie, on the request of the Othomans. In 1511, the khanat helped the future Sultan Othoman Sélim to obtain the post of governor of a province of Europe.
In 1569, the khanat attacked Astrakhan, which had passed under the control of Russia. Two years later, Tatars, under the orders of the Khan Devlet I Giray, launched a raid against Moscow, making approximately 100.000 prisoners. In 1578, the khanat helped the Ottoman Empire in a war against the Perses.
The area fell under Russian influence in 1774, after the Guerre Russo-Othoman (1768 -1774). The Traité of Iassy which was signed made leave the khanat the Crimea of the Othoman bosom to transfer it in the Russian Empire.
For the list of the khans of the Crimea, to see the article Khanat of the Crimea
Russian EmpireThe Crimean War, which took seat between 1854 and 1856, devastated the social economy and structures of the Crimea. Tatars of the Crimea had to leave in mass the area following the war, with persecutions and the confiscations of the grounds. They moved and reinstalled in other provinces of the Ottoman Empire, in Anatolia. For the first time in their history, they became a minority in the Crimea, with a majority of them living as a diaspora. Finally, the Russian government decided to stop the process of expulsion, because the agricultural outputs suffered enormously. During the civil war of the Crimea, the area was a bastion of the white Armée antibolchevic, with as chief the General Wrangel. They were however demolished by the Red Army in 1920.
Soviet UnionIn 1921 was created the socialist Soviet autonomous République of the Crimea, left the socialist Soviet federate Republic of Russia.
The Crimea was the scene of the battles among bloodiest of the Second world war. The German underwent many losses at the time of their progression towards the Crimea, in particular at the time of the passage binding the Ukraine to the Crimea by the narrow band of the Isthme of Perekop during the summer 1941. Once passed, the Germans occupied the Crimea mainly, except for the town of Sébastopol, with which was decreed the title of Ville Hero thereafter. Sébastopol resisted the seat of October 1941 until the July 4th 1942. In May 1944, the Soviet troops released the city.
The May 18th 1944, Stalin launched the deportation of the Tatars of the Crimea like forms collective punishment. Three days later, ethnic cleaning was finished. It is estimated that 46% of the deportees died of hunger or disease. In 1967, the Tatars of the Crimea were rehabilitated but their exile did not take fine for as much before the first massive returns as from the Eighties.
The socialist Soviet autonomous Republic of the Crimea was abolished in 1945 and was transformed into province of the Crimea, always part of the socialist Soviet federate Republic of Russia. In 1954, Nikita Khrouchtchev itself having a long time lived in Ukraine, offered the province to the socialist Soviet republic of Ukraine to mark the 300e birthday of the reunification of the Russia and the Ukraine.
The era post-SovietWith the collapse of the Soviet Union, it becomes difficult to accept for most of its population, of Russian origin or Russian speaker, that the Crimea is henceforth an integral part of the independent Ukraine. This situation caused many tensions between Russia and the Ukraine, exacerbated by the presence of the Soviet ex-fleet (become Russian) of the Black Sea on the peninsula, letting plane the risk of an armed conflict.
With the defeats of the Ukrainian nationalist parties most radical, the tensions temporarily calmed down. The Crimea proclaimed its own laws the May 5th 1992, but decided later to remain in the Ukraine as an autonomous republic. The town of Sébastopol' has also a special statute in Ukraine. The official languages of the Crimea are the Russian and the Ukrainian . The Tatar of the Crimea does not have an official statute. One speaks there also the Hungarian, the Polish and the Rumanian .
The unloading of American military material in the port of Théodosie on May 27th, 2006 in preparation for the exercise Sea Breeze 2006 revived passions. The fastening of the Crimea in the Ukraine had been recognized only in 1997 by Russia, for ten years only and only taking into account the autonomous statute of the republic of the Crimea. It is resulted from it a cleavage at the interior-even of the Ukraine between pro-Russian and the pro-Westerners.
The economy of the Crimea was formed during the 20th century thanks to the use of the natural resources. It underwent, following the example Ukraine during the decade 1990, a serious recession which brought the public authorities to try to diversify its resources. This crisis, brutal, indeed upsets the traditional order of the economy which is based on the exploitation of the resources of agriculture (cereal, vine…) and on heavy industry (chemistry, metallurgy). Because the mineral resources play a central role in the economy of the Crimea. One does not count less than 250 layers of 27 different minerals, constituting the base of mining industry and chemical conversion of the Ukraine. These raw material layers are exploited mainly for construction (60%) and the production of hydrocarbon (15%). The industrial sector knew a vertiginous fall since 1985. All the sectors saw their respective productions decreasing by 10 to 70% since this date. The industry of the Crimea accounts for today only 2% of the incomes of Ukrainian industry. This sector employs today 60.000 people against 100.000 in 1995 and counts 58% of overdrawn companies. The production knows however a rise of the production during the most recent time; +10% between 1999 and 2000. The town of Kertch remains one of the principal zones of industrial activity, since it represents nearly 10% of the industrial value of the Crimea.
The agricultural sector is also in déprise.
The number of exploitations passed from 652 in 1995 to 532 in 2000. Agriculture criméenne knows the same vexations as Ukrainian agriculture. Low productivity, large consumption of manure, bad organization, insufficiency of the outlets, do not make it possible to consider a flourishing future, at least in the short run. Agriculture thus marks less and less the landscape. Surfaces of sowing passed from 1.198.000 hectares in 1990 to 933.000 hectares in 2000. For as much, the sector takes part for more than 35% in the wine production from the Ukraine, 10% of the production of fruit and 5% of that of corn.
This recession causes many social problems.
The population decrease of 5% per annum, passing 2,2 M in 1993 to 2,1 M in 2001. The annual number of birth passed from 32.000 in 1990 to 15.000 in 2000. Unemployment rate, as for him, passed from 20% in 1993 to 28% today. The Crimea is thus one of the poorest areas of Ukraine, as the level testifies some to its average revenue (225 hrivna monthly per capita is 2,5% less than that of the Ukraine). Another worrying report, 83% of the households are involved in debt, which hardly allows a local investment. The Crimea however benefits from the total improvement of the Ukrainian economy and saw its total volume production to grow of 20% between 2000 and 2004. Privatizations continue, and for this reason, the government counts on receipts of about 400 Million hrivna in 2005 (the number of private companies is into 2003 of 55%). The regional government seems miser today on a reorientation of the productive structure, by promulgating many incentive measures, suitable to give again dynamism with this staggering economy. The main aim of the public authorities is indeed of tertiariser the economy criméenne, with the example of what the government of Kiev tries to carry out. The new laws of orientation of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea give of this fact priority to the development of the tourist branch.
The tourist sector
Tourism in the Crimea can be regarded as a traditional activity. Indeed as of the end of the XIXe century the tsars decide to install their vacation resorts there. Sébastopol becomes, thanks to the installation of the railroad connecting it to Iozovaya the first tourist place of the Crimea. Therapeutic tourism of then is however reserved for an elite very few. One practices, like wants it the fashion, tourism “hygienist”, based on back in shape, on the practice of sports activities, as the doctors of the time preached it (creation of “Crimean Mountain Club” in 1916). Following the Soviet revolution, the communist capacity decides to create a centralized tourist administration (Intourist), making of the Crimea the place of rest of the “deserving” workers and oligarchy, this in the step ideological, cultural and educational clean at the time. The tourist sector was inserted in the productive logic of the planned economy: price except market, quality of the neglected service, centralized management. The principal infrastructures, in particular hotel, are built during this period, are concentrated in some coastal towns (Yalta, Sébastopol…).
Following Ukrainian independence and autonomy of the Crimea, the public authorities quickly decide miser on the tourist sector, considering that this one, thanks to its dynamic character, can allow, in the medium term, to diversify the regional economy. Since 1993, the regional government creates the adequate administrations in order to structure this sector. A clean ministry is dedicated to him (Ministry off Spring and Tourism), a die of the University of Sébastopol is devoted to train scientists, frameworks qualified, and one founds, in 1994, an annual conference (Tourism Convention Business) allowing the various actors to establish synergies. Then remain to create an economic environment facilitating the investments. That will be thing made in 1995 with the promulgation of the “Law Tourism”. This law tallies the tourist development by also giving him the means of thriving. It indeed makes it possible to ensure the inputs and outgoing companies, to improve conformity with the laws and international standards, to lower the taxation of the profits, to ensure a control of the sector, to develop the international cooperation, to continue privatizations and to facilitate the investments. Accordingly the central government decides, in 2000, to establish free zones in the tourist sector with Yalta, Aloutcha, Sudak and Féodossia. At the present time, it is too early to draw the conclusions from this experiment. Nevertheless, with the examination of the economic situation of the Crimea, this will of miser on the tourist sector seems legitimate. Indeed, the Crimea, by its history, has already many tourist infrastructures. It is one of the areas of the old USSR which count the most seaside resorts and thermal.
The tourist offer
The tourist sector represents henceforth more than 30% of the GDP of the Crimea (2002). It indeed accommodates 30% of the international tourists of the Ukraine, which, with the national tourists, represents more than 3 Million tourists in 2003. In comparison with the figure of 1970 that represents an increase of 100%. This spectacular progression continues since the frequentation knew, in 2003, a rise of 6%. This fast development was possible after the dislocation of the USSR, the access to the territory having become largely easier.
The tourist offer developed it also on the exploitation of the natural resources. Tourism in the Crimea indeed specialized on the product sales therapeutic, on tourism of health (thermal spas…).
Thanks to its situation, she also plays a big role of point of stopover of cruisings of the Black Sea. The ports are primarily with international vocation and make it possible to join the harbor main cities of the Black Sea. The means of transport thus are rather well developed, even if one can largely improve them. The Crimea counts an international airport (Simféropol) and two airports with regional and national vocation (Kertch and Sébastopol). These airports are managed by the State and are used by the Ukrainian civil aviation as by a national company (Air the Crimea) which maintains the regular connections with Liv, Kiev and, to a lesser extent, Moscow. They remain under-utilized, but in the context of the Ukrainian economy they do not seem to be priorities in term of investment.
One distinguishes three principal areas with tourist vocation: it southern part, which with Yalta and Aloutcha, is attended. It is the traditional tourist area, it is also most luxurious. Yalta counts 92 stations of “treatment” i.e. of “back in shape” (27 000 places), Aloutcha 16 per 11.000 places. it Western coast (Evpatoria, 25.000 places and Saki), celebrates for its mud baths. it Eastern coast which extends from Aloutcha with Féodossia. It is about a cheap area. This capacity is indeed drops some since one at the present time counted 150.000 places of lodging in 1995 against 130.000. This fall is due to the economic crisis which burdens the capacity with investment. Moreover, the receiving structures remain, with the image of the Ukrainian situation, largely nationalized, suffering of a deficit in term of services, quality and also of clear standards, easily identifiable for the foreign tourists. The future investments must answer this lack in order to allow a better relation price-quality. Kertch, which is located at the point is peninsula, is a city with the variation of principal tourist flows of the area. That will constitute one of the work axes proposed in the third part.
The safeguarding of the environment in the Crimea
One of the axes of the tourist development of the Crimea is the development of the natural heritage. The impact of Tchernobyl on the image of the country is obviously very negative, it is thus appropriate to establish a communication plan making it possible to reabsorb this deficit in term of image. That seems to be a real concern of the various spheres of the capacity, although the competent authorities on the matter encounter many problems in the installation of ambitious policies. One cannot all control indeed in this poor area and it appears that the immediate lure of gain is much stronger than any environmental concern. It is however necessary to act quickly because the Crimea passes through a serious crisis. As we already noticed, the grounds are often polluted because of the needs for agriculture and the lack of financial means of the local government agencies limits the extent of the actions undertaken.
Nevertheless, in this field, the things have advanced for one decade.
The Ukrainian constitution, taken again by the constitution criméenne stipulates in its article 254K that “the richness of the natural landscapes is a common property of the Ukrainian people, its natural heritage and must be used for the present generations like at the future generations”. The Ukraine adheres, since 1997, with the international charters of environmental protection and adopts its own outline laws making it possible to define, on the ground, the principal zones to be safeguarded (“Design off biological diversity protection off Ukrain”). This safeguard is sometimes related to the setting in tourism of these various sites. Thus, spaces enjoying a protection increased of more than 78% between 1996 and 2002. There exist various types of protected areas: “natural reserve”, “national natural park”, “regional landscape park”, “special reserve”, “natural monument”. Following “One the state program for development off ukrain national ecological network; 2000-2015”, the conditions for applications of protection of these various zones are clearly defined. It is acted as agricultural priority of tourist area suffering from déprise. This program allows a rational management of the various means implemented (delimitation, clean object, statute, scientific co-operation…). The Crimea counts, henceforth, 6 reserves of State and 33 reserves special which add up more than 5% of the surface of its territory (either 140.000 hectares). The reserves criméennes thus have various statutes, objectives and means which depend in particular on quality on the sites and their sizes. Several levels of protections are thus established. As we already saw, thanks to its peninsular situation, it has many endemic species. These species profit from a special protection (inscription in “the Red book”) which enable them to be preserved.
the parliamentary Council of Europe Parliament: Repatriation and integration of Tatars of the Crimea
See also other articles
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