The Council of Europe
The the Council of Europe is the International organization of the “Large Europe” (47 Member States, is the near total of the countries of the continent of Europe) of which the goal is to promote the Démocratie, the Human rights, the preeminence of the Droit, cultural identity and European policy and the research solution with the societies' problems in Europe. Its seat is with Strasbourg.
HistoryThe Council of Europe is the direct consequence of the Congrès of $the Hague which was held of the 7 at May 10th, 1948 under the presidency of Winston Churchill. During this congress, two visions of Europe are opposed. The France and the Belgium wish an European Federation with a Parliament elected by the people as Paul Reynaud suggests it. The the United Kingdom for its part, prefers a brought closer union where the governments can meet to make decisions concerning the European policy. This British vision aimed at bringing closer the democratic States in order to make block against the Soviet Union and the countries of Europe of the East which were under its influence.
A preparatory conference is taken place with Paris in November 1948, gathering France, the United Kingdom and the three States of the Benelux. This conference aims to find a compromise, which will be the institution of the Council of Ministers, as that of an assembly whose decisions are advisory. With final, the Council of Europe is rested by ten States the May 5th 1949 with the signature of the Traité of London. It is thus the most former political organization of Europe still in function.
Within the framework of its objective to promote the Human rights, it obtains the November 4th 1950 the European Convention of the human rights and between in force in 1953. The European Cour of the human rights is created the September 18th 1959 in order to make respect Convention. But the promotion of the human rights and the right in general are not its only prerogatives, to that is added a cultural aspect with the European of 1954, economic with the creation of the Funds of re-establishment or social cultural Convention with the European Social charter of 1961.
Following the opening of the Soviet Union, the Council of Europe decides the June 8th 1989 to be extended to the countries of Europe of the east by creating the statute of special guest to the parliamentary Parliament. Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, the European commission for the democracy by the right is created the May 10th 1990, with an aim of helping the countries of the old Soviet Union to set up the laws and institutions necessary to their democratization.
At the time of the first Summit of the Council of Europe with Vienna in Austria the 8 and October 9th 1993, it is decided that the Council would make very to protect the Minorité S and their cultural identity, like fighting against all the forms of intolerance.
- parliamentary Parliament of the Council of Europe
- Committee of the Ministers
- Congress of the local and regional authorities
- European Court of the human rights
- Police chief to the Human rights of the Council of Europe
- European commission for the democracy by the right
- European Pharmacopeia
- European Committee of the social rights
- European commission for the effectiveness of justice (CEPEJ)
- Conference of the nongovernmental international organizations (COInG)
Committee of the ministersThe Committee is composed of the Foreign Ministers, or their representative permanent in Strasbourg and meets twice a year. The ministers in turn hold the presidency of the committee for a six months duration.
The Committee is the principal authority of Council Decision and it:
- stops the broad outlines of the policy and the activities of the Organization. It adopts European conventions;
- vote the budget;
- decides admission of novel members;
- day before with the respect of engagements of the Member States taken within the framework of conventions;
- day before with the execution of the judgments delivered by the European Court of human rights.
European SummitsThe Summits are the meeting of heads of state and government and episodically take place since the Années 1990. They must make it possible to help the committee of the ministers and to give fresh impulse to the Council of Europe.
Parliamentary ParliamentHistorically, it is the first parliamentary assembly of the history of the continent. It is made up of 315 members and 315 substitutes elected or appointed by the national parliaments. The number of representatives per country depends on his demography (from two to eighteen). The assembly meets four times per annum during a week. Work of the assembly is prepared by Committees.
The Parliament has the role:
- to discuss the great topical questions;
- to make recommendations at the committee of the ministers;
- it is in the beginning many European conventions.
Congress of the local and regional authorities
It was created in 1994 in the capacity as consultative body charged to help the Committee of the ministers and the parliamentary Parliament. It is composed of two rooms:
- the room of the local authorities;
- the room of the areas.
The assembly of the two rooms includes/understands 315 regular members and 315 substitutes representing more: 200000 regional and local authorities of the Member States. It meets once per annum in Strasbourg. By the discussion and the exchange, the Congress seeks to reinforce the local structures democratic, in particular in the new democracies.
Conference of the nongovernmental international organizations
Representing the civil society, 400 COInG are members of the Conference. They contribute actively in various ways to the action and the radiation of the Council of Europe as well by its contributions to the reflection on the multiple subjects tackled as by the follow-up of the application of various conventions as its members can ensure in the various European countries.
The Conference joined together 4 times per annum at the Palate from Europe in Strasbourg at the same dates as the parliamentary Parliament. Moreover, she exerts her expertise in the various management committees and groups of expert.
Equipped since 2003 with a participative statute, it constitutes one of the 4 pillars of the Council of Europe, in close link and complementarity with the 3 others (Committee of the ministers, parliamentary Assemblée and Congress of the local and regional authorities)
General secretaryElected by the parliamentary Parliament for five years, it is the administrative body of the Council of Europe and person in charge of the budget of the Council of Europe (which In 2004 rose to 180 and euro million In 2007 of a little more than 197 million euros), whose financing comes from the government of the Member States.
Police chief with the human rightsHe is elected by the parliamentary assembly for a six years mandate and is charged to promote education, sensitizing as well as the respect of the human rights. He can send recommendations to the Member States and reports/ratios at the committee of the ministers and the parliamentary Parliament. For example, the report/ratio criticizes Alvaro Gil Robles of February 2006 on the situation of the prisoners in the French prisons.
EmblemsThe official emblems of the Council of Europe are:
- the European flag , the banner of azure carrying a crown of twelve gold stars; adoptee the December 13rd 1955 by the parliamentary Parliament, it can be officially used by the Council of Europe itself or each one of his Member States, but it must symbolize all Europe and make it possible all the European people to be identified there, and not only their countries or their government (which he are member or not the Council of Europe). (This flag was adopted then separately like emblême by the European Communities in 1983 and was used starting from 1986, then adopted by the European Union at the time of the single act of fusion of the communities, in both cases with the agreement of the Council of Europe.) As opposed to what certain urban legends pay, the number of stars on the flag always was of 12, symbol of perfection or plenitude, but not of the number of Member States (in 1955, during the adoption of the European flag, the Council of Europe counted already 14 Member States).
- the anthem European , adopted in 1971 by the Committee of the Ministers and presented at the time of the day of Europe in 1972, is the prelude of the Ode to the joy orchestrated in the Symphonie n° 9 of Ludwig van Beethoven, and this prelude is played without words when it symbolizes a European institution. (This anthem will be also adopted later by the European Community in 1986, then by the European Union).
- the logo of the Council of Europe , is formed starting from the European flag on which is registered a gold sign which points out the letters C or E; it can be employed only by the Council of Europe like distinctive element in its official communications. Adopted in 1999 at the time of the 50e birthday of the Council of Europe, and ratified in 2000 by the Committee of the Ministers, it is protected by a Copyright and cannot be used without prior approval.
ConventionsContrary to the institutions and official emblems of the Council of Europe, the conventions adopted by the Assembled parliamentary one of the Council of Europe are not obligatory for all its Member States. Thus, the following conventions, adopted with the Council, were not ratified by the whole of the Member States and are subjected to the voluntary ratification of the members:
- European Charter of local autonomy
- European Charter of the regional or minority languages
- European Convention of the human rights
- European Social charter (adopted in 1961)
- European Convention of Extradition (1957)
- European Convention for the repression of terrorism (1977)
- European Convention for the prevention of torture and the inhuman sorrows or treatment or degrading (1987)
- European Convention for the protection of the people with regard to the computer data processing automated (1981)
- Convention of the Council of Europe on the fight against the draft of the human beings (2005)
Beyond the only Council of Europe, the European Union and the European Free Trade Association required the ratification of some of these conventions like prerequisite with their adhesion, without however requiring them for their current members.
Moreover, conventions of Free trade and/or Freedom of circulation or charters exist in parallel between these three institutions and other institutions of co-operation regional European or non-European, which make it possible to extend the scope of some of the institutions of the Council of Europe beyond its only members.
Among the acts of ratification of the Treaties of Accession to the Council of Europe, the Member States are not obligatorily engaged concerning their autonomous territories in Europe or elsewhere in the world if them Constitution grants the right to them to decide with the territories concerned of the statute and the application of the international treaties to the territories of which they are the representatives. Except if the autonomous territories decides some differently (and these autonomous territories have the right to withdraw these conventions and treaties as long as they are not recognized independent and fully autogouvernés, under the terms of the right to self-determination recognized by the Council of Europe and the treaties of UNO, within the limits of the Constitutions of each country signatory).
Member StatesSo that a State can adhere to the Council of Europe, its institutions must be democratic and it must respect the Human rights.
Thus during several years of the States anchored in Europe could not be member. That was the case of the Portugal under the mode instituted by António de Oliveira Salazar and of the Spain under Francisco Franco. The Greece also had to be withdrawn in 1969, of risk to see itself expelling organization because of the installation of the Dictature of the colonels following the Coup d'etat of 1967. Greece reinstated the Council of Europe only in 1974 with the restoration of a democratic regime. From September 16th, 1992 to January 13rd, 1997 the Bélarus had the statute of special guest, but was suspended by the Office of the Parliament because of her non-observance of the Human rights and the democratic principles.
; Founding members (on May 5th, 1949) ; Other Member States (by order of adhesion)
Country applying for accession
; At the Council of Ministers
; With the Parliamentary Parliament (Delegates of National parliaments)
- common European Framework of reference for the languages
- European Day of the languages
References and notes
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