See also: Gautier
Its traditional formation and its first steps in painting
Born in Tarbes on August 31st 1811, the very young Gautier has a long time “the memory of the blue mountains”. It however goes up very early with its family to Paris. It reads then Robinson Crusoé , Paul and Virginia . In 1822 only, it makes a short stay as a boarder with the Louis-The-Large Lycée. His/her parents must withdraw some at the end of one quarter so much it decays there. Happier like external with the Charlemagne college, Gautier meets there the young person Gerard Labrunie (the future Nerval) and proclamation a particular taste for the Latin poets known as declining, the “grotesque ones”. At that time Gautier attends the workshop of the painter.
Meet with Hugo and first poems
Its meeting on June 27th 1829 with “the Master” Victor Hugo precipitates his career of writer. The February 25th 1830, it takes part in the Bataille of Hernani, vêtu of a red waistcoat which will mark the spirits durably. The evening even, it leaves the workshop of Rioult.
Five months later, the July 28th 1830, the Poésies of Théophile Gautier appear at Mary. Unfortunately this day is also that of the barricades in Paris and the collection overlooks. These first poetries however show a young extremely skilful poet having already acquired the manner of old and, conscious of their heritage, it shown there originality by a well stopped form and a precise and clear language. Three years later, Gautier reprints his first towards in a new collection entitled Albertus , name of the hero of the long poem, fantastic, diabolic and picturesque account. The liveliness of this “legend” is found in 1833 in a series of novels, Young people France , which return account with liveliness of the life of the artists and writers who train the Coterie. In this work “baroque” however, Gautier is made the lucid and ironic witness these “the Invaluable Ridiculous ones of the Romanticism”. published the Coffee machine, its first tale of fantasy. Consequently, its talent in this vein very in vogue does not cease continuing with texts like Arria Marcella (1852), the Novel of the mummy (1858) or Spiritistic (1866). Parallel to his tales, Gautier publishes many texts in prose, like Young person-France, Romance goguenards (1883), collection of often parodic news or the novel Leaving the family home, Place of the Vosges, Théophile Gautier settle dead end of the Deanery, with the site of the place of the Carousel, in an apartment where it has like neighbors Camille Rogier, Arsène Houssaye and Nerval.
In 1835, Théophile Gautier makes appear a novel, Miss de Maupin , which makes scandal. But Honore de Balzac appreciates this young talent and he proposes to him to contribute to the newspaper the Chronicle of Paris in 1836. Gautier will be extremely impressed by the main and later, it will contribute to its legend with biographical portraits of Honore de Balzac
- Balzac, which condescended to find me talent and to say it, sent me to seek by Jules Sandeau, and made me work with the Chronicle of Paris, where I put the Dead in love, the Chain of gold, and the articles of criticism. .
Gautier prepares then a new novel, the Captain Crashes to pieces , that it complete only thirty years later, various accounts, tales or news appears of 1837 to 1866: let us quote Fortunio , the Golden Fleece , One night of Cléopâtre , Arria Marcella , the Dead in love or the Novel with the mummy .
With the newspaper of the Press , Gautier takes care initially of the Critic art . One evaluates with more than two thousand the number of the serials and articles which it would have written for this newspaper. A restricted number of these articles is collected in volumes: Grotesque the , the history of the painters , the Modern art , the Art schools in Europe , the History of the dramatic art for twenty-five years , Treasures of art of Russia , contemporary Portraits , History of the Romanticism , literary Memories , etc All these articles have been briskly written in a language clear, flexible, impeccable and brilliant. Gautier invents with his manner a writing of art critic which does not aim only to the judgment, with the analysis, but also to recreate the accuracy of the esthetic feeling. He seeks to return, by means of words, the visual, musical feeling produced by the direct perception of the work of Article This task of chronicler occupies it all his life. Often heavy, this daily work does not prevent it creating poetic and dramatic works, and from accomplishing voyages.
Thus in 1838 the Comedy of Dead the appears, a collection of poems rather different from the precedents where, under the influence of Shakespeare, Goethe and Dante, Gautier carves with strength the spectrum of Death. In 1839, Gautier yields to the temptation of the theater which he admires since always and written a tear of the devil then the Magic Tricorn and Pierrot Posthume . They are imaginations, the pastoral fairy-like ones, an opera house, impossible and imaginary that it makes still live in the booklets of several ballets, of which most famous is that of Gisele , danced with the Opéra the June 28th 1841, with an extraordinary success.
The contact with the East and the Mediterranean
In 1843, a six months stay makes discover in Gautier the Spain. Its Voyage in Spain , kind of notebooks of vigorous impressions, is marked by the freshness of the glance, the astonishment of the vision and the always exacerbated concern of the accuracy of saying. These visions give place to the new ones towards, España , which appear in the collection of the complete Poésies in 1845. This first voyage in pleasing good quickly of others. In 1845 it is the Algérie, in 1850 the Italy, 1852 the Greece and the Turkey, in 1858 the Russia and 1862 the Egypt. Each one of these voyages gives place to publications: Italia , Constantinople , but especially they nourish its literary works, novels, news or poetries.
Beside this work of criticism, Gautier always keeps a predilection for poetry: it remains, as his/her friends like Emile Bergerat or Maxime testify some to the Camp for example, its passion, its distraction, its daily exercise. Thus, in 1852, the first version of Émaux and Camées appears, collection which until 1872 grows rich by new poetries.
The family and friends
In 1857, Gautier settles with his wife, Ernesta Grisi (sister of the dancer Carlotta Grisi), his daughters, Judith Gautier and Estelle, who marries Emile Bergerat, and his two old sisters, 32 rue de Longchamp with Neuilly-sur-Seine, in a small house where it enjoys to receive his friends: Baudelaire, Dumas wire, Ernest Feydeau, Gustave Flaubert, Puvis de Chavannes or Gustave Gilded. Of her connection with Eugenie Strong, very a beautiful woman, younger than him and with Spanish origins, it has a son, Théophile Gautier wire which compensated his/her father several times for the Monitor.
At the time of the literary living rooms of the Mathilde princess, of which it is named librarian, Gautier also meets writers like Taine, Holy-Beuve, Prosper Mérimée, Goncourt; painters like Paul Baudry, Gustave Baker, Jean-Leon Gérôme; sculptors like Carpeaux; scientists like Claude Bernard, Pasteur or Berthelot. At that time Gautier has the appearance of a chief of school. Baudelaire declares its disciple (it dedicates to him the Flowers of the evil , describing it as “impeccable poet”), Theodore de Banville dedicates its worms to him. In 1844 Théophile Gautier founds the Club of Hashischins with Jacques-Joseph Moreau, club dedicated being studied of the cannabis. This club will be attended by many artists of the time of which Charles Baudelaire.
President of the Art gallery|National company of the Art schools
Elected into 1862 president of the National company of the Art schools, it is surrounded by a committee made up of the most prestigious painters: Eugene Delacroix, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Edouard Manet, Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse and Gustave Gilded. This election at a station in sight causes the desire of part of the less known literary men and it fails three recoveries when it presents to the French Academy, in 1866,1868 and 1869.
Deeply moved by the military events by 1870, Gautier returns to Paris, where it finishes his days, corroded by the disease, but conscious of the duty of teaching and example of which it is invested near the young generations. The October 23rd 1872 in the night, its heart ceases beating. Hugo, Mallarmé or Banville returns a last “funeral toast to him”. It is buried with the Cimetière of Montmartre to Paris.
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