See also: Textile (homonymy)
A textile is the name given to all fabric or Matériau carried out starting from Fiber S or of filaments (Naturel S, Chimique S, mineral) or of textile materials. Among the textiles, one finds fiber the chechmates (the Pansement S, the filter S, the felt) of the wick S (bandages) of the wire S (to be sewn, knit, weave), the knittings (rectilinear, circular, fullyfashion) the fabrics (traditional, Jacquard, multiple, double face, multi axial, 2D and half, 3D), and well of others.
One distinguishes two big classes from textiles to which several under possible classes are added:
- textile traditional: textiles for which one pays the attention on appearance and comfort. It is especially about the field of the mode, often of the Vêtement, but also of the Ameublement (Drap S, hangings, Rideau X, Nappe S, Serviette S, Tapisserie S);
- textile techniques: are classified in this category all textiles for which the characteristics Mécanique S import, chemical, physicochemical and having a technical application: Geotextile, medical textile, materials composite with textile reinforcement.
The textile fibers are classified in four main categories:
- natural fibers (existing in a natural state);
- manmade fibers:
- artificial fibers (manufactured starting from natural raw materials);
- synthetic fibers (obtained by chemical reactions).
the natural fibers were the first to be used for the clothes industry of Vêtement S.
The art of the spinning developed as of the sedentarisation of the tribes Préhistorique S.
The Mouton was initially domesticated in Mésopotamie where its Laine easy to work was spun and woven with techniques already used in Vannerie, the woven wool being hotter than the Fourrure S.
See also: List of the fabrics
See also: Textile industry
Textile industry gathers very many trades throughout a chain of transformation on the basis of fibrous raw materials to semi-finished or entirely manufactured products.
The first stage consists of the raw material transformation resulting from natural, artificial or synthetic fibers out of wire. The associated trades are the spinning mill, the winding, grinding or texture.
Starting from unidimensional wire, the techniques of weaving and knitting make it possible to obtain two-dimensional textile surfaces (even three-dimensional).
These surfaces are then very often ennoblies to give them particular color (dyeing, impression) or properties (chemical finishes, mechanical finishes, coating, pasting, etc).
Textile surfaces are then transformed into clothes, pieces of furniture, curtains but can also be used to stabilize roads, railroads (geotextile), to drain grounds (agrotextiles), to make fly of the helicopters, to compensate a defective articulation or to protect a fireman from fire (functional technical textiles).
Declining in occident, this industry remains however very dynamic in the fields of the technical textile and the textile of luxury.
Uses and maintenance of the textiles
- Clothes line
- Washing machine: Washing machine
- dry Cleaning
- Nut of washing
- Clothes pin
Textiles of technical use; CONCEALED
CONCEALED are increasingly called Textiles techniques and functional. They contribute to the diversification of the traditional textile sector, in answer to the delocalizations in particular.
Ils gathers material weavings of which functional performances and properties which differ from those of traditional textile fibers. One will in particular especially find them in applications technique and sometimes “ extreme” : wings of planes, veils of boats, bandages, jackets of fireman, orthèses medical, stabilizer of road, anti-hail, airships, etc
The production of CONCEALED grows regularly since the years 1990 (Market estimated at 65 billion euros in 1995, then to 85 billion euros in 2005, and which could reach 100 billion euros about 2010.
The 1st producer and the 1st consumer of Textile technique in Europe would be the Germany where research is controlled by a network of competences supra regional said Conseil in Textile Research , with 16 research units (in 2007) and of many institutional and industrial partners.
See also: Geotextile
A new type of textile makes its appearance: incorporating Smart Textiles of electronics for more interaction with the user or the environment. These new products promise applications in the fields of medical (clothing with sensor cardiovascular, respiratory, thermometer, etc), of the leisure (jacket with integrated reader MP3, mode: luminous clothing), of safety (communicating number flickering and, etc). One evokes also fabrics likely to produce electricity, i.e. playing the part of solar panels, likely to reload batteries of telephone, computer, etc to even feed from the airships.
- mechanical resistance
- electrostatic phenomenon protection
- protection fire
- smart textile/Textronique
; Mechanical characteristic
- comparison of tests tensile of various fibers.
- comparison of a metal test-tube of the same smoothness than a thread.
- composite Material
See also: Metrology
Schools of textile engineer in Europe
- textile and chemical Institute of Lyon
- University of the industrial techniques and the textiles, attached since 2005 to HEI (High Studies of Engineer) under option TIMTEX
- 3Ecole Nationale Sup3erieure of Arts and Textile industries located at Roubaix
- 3Ecole Nationale Sup3erieure of Engineers Sud Alsace (in the past '' ENSITM '')
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