See also: Texas (homonymy)
The Texas is a State of the the United States. It is widest of the country after the Alaska, and more populated after the California. It is known in particular for its production of Pétrole and its past filled of Cow-boy S. Environ a half of the population lives in the agglomerations of Dallas/Fort Worth or Houston.
With 696241 km ², Texas is wider than the Metropolitan France. Its capital is Austin. South-east is green and wet, and has a vegetation close to that of the Louisiana. The west is more Aride. Most of the State belongs to the natural whole of the Grandes Plains. Texas has some lakes like the Lake Austin.
See also: List of the cities of Texas
See also: Counties of the State of Texas
See also: History of Texas
Before the arrival of the European , Texas was occupied by several people améridiens. The November 6th 1528, the Spanish Conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was the first European to press the ground of the Texas future, which was annexed to the colony of News-Spain (see the article Spanish Colonisation of Americas). Then it was attached to the Mexico become independent in 1821. Many Americans s´installèrent then in the area, becoming gradually more numerous than the Hispanic ones and the Amerindians. The tensions ethnic between Hispanic and Amerindian d´un side and Americans of l´autre, l hostility of the Mexican government vis-a-vis l´esclavage as l´abolition of the federalism poussérent the Americans to be revolted.
The April 21st 1836, the République of Texas reached independence after a war against the Mexican government of Santa Anna. The young state had evil to ensure its borders and thus requested its fastening from the United States. Texas became a State of the United States in 1845.
During the American Civil War, Texas lined up side States confederated of America. Texas provides especially riders as substitute for confédrés fallen to the face. Little touched by the devastations the war l´État capitulated on May 12th, 1865. Texas will reinstate l´union in 1870. As in the remainder of the American South, the following period was marked by the racial segregation towards the Blacks.
The inhabitants of Texas, historically often known under the name of Texians , are designated now generally under the name of Texans . The Indians subjected to the white capacity texan called them " Tejans" , which was retransformé in " TEXANS".
In 2004, the State has a population of 22.490.022 inhabitants. The State has 3.450.500 residents born abroad (15,6% of the population of State), 1,2 million approximately are illegal foreigners (the illegal foreigners represent more than one third of the population abroad born in Texas and 5,4% of all the population of the State).
The population of the State increased by 5,5 million between 1990 and 2004 are a growth of 32,4%.
PolicyTexas is one of the most preserving States of the the United States. Historically, Texas was a State with sole party, that of the democratic one period which is spread out years 1870 until the years 1970-80. Since the years 1990, it became a bastion of the Republican party. The president George W. Bush is the craftsman of this republican conquest, carried out whereas it was governor of Texas between 1995 and 2001.
The November 8th 2005, the voters of Texas massively approved the creation of a constitutional law prohibiting the Homosexual marriage (70% of the votes). Texas is the State nineteenth of the Union to adopt such a constitutional law.
A new republican bastion with the presidential electionsHeritage of the American Civil War, Texas was strongly hostile to the republicans since the years 1870.
Since 1980 and the preserving Revolution of Ronald Reagan, the republican candidates always could count on Texas so that, in 2000, the democratic candidate held no meeting to with it whereas many local democrats supported the republican candidate, the governor of Texas, George W. Bush.
At the time of the presidential election of 2004, president George W. Bush obtained there 61,09% of the voices compared with 38,22% with the democratic candidate John Kerry. The republican candidate carried it in particular in the urban districts of Dallas and Houston, whereas the majority of the urban areas of the country chose the democratic candidate. Only the capital Austin and the city with strong Hispanic minority of El Paso vote regularly democratic.
A republican bastion confirmed with the local plan
Since December 2000, the governor of Texas is the republican Rick Perry. It succeeded in the course of mandate with George W. Bush, then elected President of the United States. Rick Perry is the third republican governor of Texas in a little more than one hundred of years but also since 1979. All the other elected stations of the executive are held by republicans at the time of the session 2005 - 2006. In fact, since 1994, no democrat carried an election for a station of the executive texan.
The legislature of Texas is composed of a room of the representatives of 150 members and of a senate of 31 members, both dominated since recently by the republicans. At the time of the legislature 2007-2008, the Lower House is controlled by 81 republicans vis-a-vis 69 democrats and the senate by 20 republicans vis-a-vis 11 democrats.
A preserving and republican national representation
At the federal level, at the time of the legislature 2007-2008, Texas is represented with the Congrès of the United States by the two Republican senators Kay Bailey Hutchison and John Cornyn whereas 13 democrats and 19 republicans represent the State with the room of the representatives.
The capital punishment
Many Governmental organizations (ONG) worries about the practice about the Capital punishment largely approved in the State and about the prison policy which is carried out there.
One can obtain off statistics from Department Criminal Justice. The principal center of execution is the prison of Huntsville.
With him only, this State of the American south proceeded to more of the third of the executions carried out to the United States since the Supreme court authorized the re-establishment of the capital punishment in 1976, and to nearly two thirds in 2007.
To note: 446 people waited into 2001 their execution (see the article Capital punishment in the United States).
AgricultureThe economic prosperity of Texas was initially founded by the breeding. The breeding texan formed of the thousands of Cow-boy S. the incomes of the breeding and of agriculture are as important as those of oil.
Oil and energyThe oil reservoirs are numerous in Texas particularly in the permian basin in the west of the état.
Le Texas is one of the most productive areas of the United States, with the Alaska, the California, the Rocheuses as well as the Oklahoma. The hydrocarbons are the base of an important petrochemical industry. Refining capacity is the first of the country.
Texas counts several nuclear plants: one of them, the South Texas Project , located at 150 km of Houston, has two nuclear reactors of 1.264 megawatts.
Texans like to lead quickly; speed limits on highways in Western Texas were high to 80 mi/h (129 km/h) in 2005.
- In 1996 Texas was classified with the 22nd rank in the rate of died by Firearm, with a rate of 13,64%. In 1996 the national rate of died by firearm was of 12,94% (Violence Policy Center, http://www.vpc.org/press/9909tex.htm.) the majority of the guns had by the private ones are kept at the house, not carried in the street.
- Texans make fun readily of themselves and their reputation of Chauvinisme. In 1945, for example, a newspaper texan titrated: “The army texane crushes the Nazi Germany”, followed by a tiny complement of title: “with the assistance of some detachments of the Union”.
- (MLB) Houston Astros
- (MLB) Texas Rangers
- (MLS) FC Dallas
- (MLS) Houston Dynamo
- (NHL) Stars of Dallas
- (NBA) Dallas Mavericks
- (NBA) Houston Rockets
- (NBA) San Antonio Spurs
- (NFL) Dallas Cowboys
- (NFL) Houston Texans
Official site of the State of tourist Texas
- Official site of Texas
- Travis' Appeal for Aid At the Alamo (1836)
- Ordinance off Secession 2 February, 1861
Beats-smg: Teksasos Be-X-old: Тэхас Simple: Texas Zh-min-nan: Texas
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