The concept of territory took an increasing importance in Géographie and in particular in human and political geography, even if this concept is used by other social sciences. In the dictionary of geography of Pierre Georges and Fernand Verger the territory is defined as a geographical space qualified by a legal membership (one speaks thus about “national territory”); or by a natural or cultural specificity: mountainous territory, linguistic territory. In this last case, the term of surface (“linguistic surface”) could be to him preferred. Whatever its nature, a territory implies the existence of Frontières or Limites. These the last two terms are used according to the type of territory of which they form the Périmètre. A political territory, or an administrative subdivision, is delimited by a border; a natural territory is circumscribed by a limit, term less legal.
History of the concept
The concept of territory was the object of many reflections on behalf of the geographers which with the wire of time made evolve/move its significance. The idea of territory is in bond with the concept of space, and although often used in synonyms these terms are distinguished under several aspects and vary also direction according to the designs. the last sentence is not very clear, moreover the social space conceptualized by Bourdieu has nothing to do with the concept of territory-->
In ethology, a territory indicates the zone of settlement of a Espèce vegetable or animal.
The territory is also a medium of life, a place of reproduction of an animal specie or the man.
In physical Geography, a territory is a space with metric topographic (metric characterized by continuity and the adjacency).
the territory with the sociological direction can be related on the cultural identity populations the inhabitant, or to the representations that one is done some. For example, the territory Tibetan is regarded as such because it was marked by the culture and the population Tibetan (landscapes, monuments, etc). But this space is Tibetan because we consider it such although today the Tibetans there are minority and under Chinese sovereignty .
The concept of Territorialité indicates the process of appropriation of the territory by the social groups. Geographically and theoretically one can define it as being the unit of the identity by the dependant places. The place representing the cancelled distance. The territory induces space social reports/ratios then. It has a material direction but also idéel.
“The territory is an at the same time economic, ideological and political appropriation (social, therefore) of space by groups which give each other a particular representation of themselves, of their history. ” Guy Di Méo (" Territories of the quotidien" , 1996, p.40).
“a fitting of material resources and symbolic systems able to structure the practical conditions of the existence of an individual or a social collective and to inform in return this individual and this collective on his own identity” (Bernard Debarbieux, geographer)
“The territory is a reordination of the space whose order is to be sought in the informational systems available to the man as it belongs to a culture. The territory can be regarded as space informed by the sémiosphère” (Claude Raffestin, 1986)
In their Dictionary of the geography and space of the companies (2003), Jacques Levy and Michel Lussault propose three general standards, which illustrate the great designs of the territory within the geography:
“Space with metric topographic” (p. 907)
“Fitting of material resources and symbolic systems able to structure the practical conditions of the existence of an individual or a social collective and to inform in return this individual or this collective on his own identity” (p. 910)
“Any humanized portion of terrestrial surface” (p. 912)
See also Levy, 1999; Di Meo, 2000; Gervais-Lambony, 2003.
the territory with the economic direction is often born by acquisition by the population from a territory from a specific economic competence starting from natural or human advantages.
See Pole of competitiveness, economy of the territories)
the territory with the political direction was defined like “portion of space delimited to exert a power (1)” (R. Sack). A group of individuals holds a To be able (often economic) on a territory, it builds a space organization to consolidate its capacity and to increase it, and so on. It is the logic lent to the Multinationale S and large the lobbys but which in fact.
the territory is a space marked by the policy, by all that structure the company.
- There exist two facets: One coming from the capacities which frame the company, the other coming from the company itself. They are two complementary aspects. Thus let us see the territory like a sociopolitic construction on a given space.
When the institutions exert prerogatives of public power on a territory scale, one speaks about Territorialisation of the public policies, a political model of regulation supposed being closer to the citizens but more adapted to local specificities.
(1) “Territoriality will Be defined ace the attempt by year individual gold has group to affect, influence gold control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting year asserting control over has geographic area. This area will Be called the territory. ” Sack, 1986, p. 19
Political geographyIn political Géographie, the territory indicates an adapted space, that this appropriation is juridically recognized or not. World space is thus cut out in a complex grid but generally encased territories whose first level is formed by 195 States. Each State is then cut out, except smallest, in administrative subdivisions: Areas, intermediate Departments or other entities and Common.
Instead of being a neutral term, a territory can indicate a precise type of administrative Subdivision. Thus, with the Canada, a territory is a political entity comparable with the provinces, having for example its own institutions and its legislative assembly.
See the territories of Canada.
- Space (social sciences) in Social sciences
- Expansionism territorial, in Geopolitical
- Territorial integrity, in International law
- Sustainable development and territory, scientific magazine
- Observatory of the territories (French) gate of DIACT, with indicators, zonings, NTIC, Littoral, Mountain… and report/ratio of the observatory
Be-X-old: Тэрыторыя Simple: Territory
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