Territorial Formation of France
The territorial formation of France is a long term job which lasts more than one millenium.
The core, the Francie Western resulting from the Treated of Verdun of 843, remains a long time stable: the first kings Capétien S were too occupied establishing their authority in their kingdom.
The kingdom quickly loses the Comté of Barcelona (Catalogne), as of the end of IXe century. The overflow beyond the the Rhone, which remains a long time the border, begins only in XIVe century, with the acquisition of the Dauphiné. However, the kingdom loses the Flanders. Louis XI recovers the heritage of prerogatives entrusted to branches juniors by the dynasty, including the Provence and even temporarily the Franche-Comté and the Artois, two territories of which his/her son Charles VIII gets rid, worried by its Italian dream.
It is Richelieu and Mazarin which undertakes the carryforward towards north and the the Rhine of the borders of the kingdom too judged close to Paris. The Duché of Lorraine remains an enclave out of the kingdom until the XVIIIe century. Its annexation under the Fleury ministry makes it possible to return of only one holding the territory which is supplemented by the fastening of the Corsica .
France temporarily increases under the French revolution and the First Empire of left bank of the Rhine, the Duché of Savoy and the Comté of Nice, which are lost since 1814-1815, after the defeat of Napoleon i. the last two territories are definitively attached to France by plebiscite in 1860. Alsace-Lorraine is annexed by Germany in 1871, but becomes again French in 1918.
After the first and the second world wars, the borders only will be very slightly modified.
Charts inducing the Territorial integrity
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