The terra cotta is a matter obtained by the cooking of Argile (or Glaise). It is used to carry out Poterie S, Sculpture S and like construction material for the manufacture of brick S. Today, the phrase " ground cuite" often indicate a Céramique remained porous in its heart (particularly in Quebec), in opposition to the sandstone or with the Porcelaine which are tight matters (negligible porosity).
Pottery and sculpturesThe very first objects of terra cotta date from the Paléolithique superior: they are in particular nonutility artistic objects such as animal Venus with the Gravettien or figurines in the Ibéromaurusien. Starting from the Neolithic, the men manufactured jugs, dishes, terracotta ballot boxes with the furnace. During 5th and 4th front millenia J. - C., this material makes its appearance in north of the the Alps whereas it is already generalized in all the the Middle East.
The terra cotta was also used to carry out works of art during the historical periods, such as for example the statues of the Army cooked of the emperor Qin (X' ian, China) or the Figurines out of Greek terra cotta. Besides the expression “terra cotta” indicates sometimes by Métonymie a statuette made out of this simple matter without other finishes.
A terra cotta statuette of Casséi, end of the 19th century, “ Woman with Eastern the ”, was sold with Paris, at the end of 2005, for 1.000 €.
Construction materialThe terra cotta is one of oldest artificial materials of construction.
After having made great great strides during the Roman civilization, the terra cotta undergoes a long eclipse starting from the collapse of the economic system and political Roman, to reappear only with the Romance time. After the Industrial revolution, the brick becomes the principal material used for the construction of the factories and the dwelling. The terra cotta brick was used for a long time everywhere in the world, but it, unfortunately is very seldom exploited to the maximum of its innumerable formal potentialities.
In France, a Research center is dedicated to this construction material, CTMNC.
- In the Italian craftsmen, the terra cotta bears the name of terracotta and indicates the pottery that one draws some, rough, or invetriata when it is about that covered with glazed or enamelled ceramics (at Andrea della Robbia, artist of the Rebirth and qualified robbiana when it is with its manner).
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