A termitière is a biogenic structure (manufactured by the alive one) which constitutes the air part of the nest of the many species of Termite S.
Certain termites build their nests in the trees with materials makes cellulose and lignin exits of digested wood, sometimes more or less bound by ground particles (excrements?). These termitières of fragile appearance evoking certain nests of Frelons of the cartonneux type, have forms varied according to the species. They resist in fact very well the winds and rains of the tropical zones, and the heat of the sun at the top of canopée.
Its structure; built and maintained by the termites, is conceived for a passive ventilation and the maintenance of a temperature and optimal Hygrométrie for the nest.
It was shown that they are favorable to a better productivity of the ground, constituting part of the termitosphère, functional compartment of the ecosystem associated with the Rhizosphère and with the Drilosphère. A termitière humivore is source of organic and mineral richness, constituting a small island of fertility in the cases studied in zone soudano-sahélienne. They are useful for the good conservation of the organic matter of the ground in savanna, sheltering a microbial community at the same time different from that of the digestive tract of the termites and surrounding ground. They have a denitrifying activity 18 times higher than that of the local ground.
Their forms and structures are very varied. These monticules or chimneys being able to reach 6 m in height (exceptionally until 8m in Africa), and their diameter at the base, up to 30 m! The wall of these termitières, very hard, is made of a mixture of ground and saliva cooked by the sun.
Certain termitières cover plants, and it happens that the termites save trees which push there.
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