Tenzin Gyatso is the 14th Dalaï Lama, the most spiritual leader of the Bouddhisme Tibetan. It is a buddhist monk resulting from the tradition Guélougpa (also called " bonnets jaunes" and " vertueux"). Since 1959, it lives in exile in the north of the India to Dharamsala (Mac Leod Ganj). Frequently invited by Buddhist centers or personalities, it accomplishes many voyages throughout the world to plead the Tibetan cause and to diffuse a message of peace and of Non-violence. For this reason it received the Nobel Prize of peace in 1989.
Childhood in TibetIt is born in a family from farmers under the name of Lhamo Dhondrub the July 6th 1935, in the village of Taktser in the North-East of the Tibet, the Amdo. At the two years age, in particular thanks to the visions of the regent Reting Rinpoché with the lake of Lhamo-Latso, he is recognized like the reincarnation of the 13th dalaï LAMA, Thubten Gyatso. Lhamo Dhondrub is high with the statute of Dalaï Lama, and famous Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso ( Saint Lord, Douce Glory, Compassionné, Défenseur of the Faith, Océan of Wisdom ). The Tibetans usually refer to the Dalaï Lama by Yeshe Norbu ( Accomplished Joyau ), Kundun ( the Presence), or even " Gyalwa Rinpoché ".
The Dalaï Lama begins her monastic education at the 6 years age. To 23 years, it passes its final examination to the temple of Jokhang, with Lhassa with the Tibet, during the annual festival of the Monlam (the great prayer) in 1959. It succeeds with mention and receives Lharampa, the most diploma of Geshe (a control of philosophy and Buddhist practice ritual, according to the prerogatives clean with the tradition Gelugpa).
The exile in IndiaThe occupation of the Tibet by the Chinese army of Mao Zedong and the hardening of the Chinese policy with regard to Tibet in the Fifties, encouraged the people Tibetan to be raised on several occasions. A rising of the people Tibetan begins in March 1959, following an attempt of China to stop the Dalaï Lama. March 17th, 1959, the Dalai Lama whose life was threatened, decided to flee the Tibet while crossing the Himalayas to join the India, accompanied by the members of its government, where it arrives on March 31st. The revolt was savagely repressed by the Chinese army. According to a report/ratio of the Chinese army , 87.000 Tibetans were killed in the area of Lhassa, the Chinese soldiers attacking particularly the monks Tibetans.
Steps near UNO and the international communityIn September 1959, Dalaï Lama calls some with UNO with the hope which the organization takes finally a clear position vis-a-vis in China. Thanks to the support of the Ireland, Malaysia and Thailand, the question of the Tibet is finally put at the day order. The October 21st, the General meeting adopts a first resolution where she declares herself worried seriously and conscious of the need for preserving the Human rights with the Tibet.
In 1960, after the publication of the second report/ratio of the International commission of the lawyers, Dalaï Lama launches a second call to UNO. For the second time, the General meeting votes for a resolution noting the violation of the human rights and the international rules and putting China in residence to respect them.
The December 18th 1965, UNO votes one 3rd resolution denouncing the continual violation of the basic rights of the Tibetans. India, which hitherto had always abstained from on the Tibetan question, also voted it. But the silence of the Popular republic of China did not involve any measurement of coercion on behalf of the Member States of UNO.
It bases the Gouvernement Tibetan in exile on a democratic base
The September 2nd 1960 Dalai Lama announced the establishment of the democratic shape of government for the Tibetans living in exile. It is a system based on the union of spiritual and laic values. This same year, an outline of the Constitution of Tibet was written, and of the representatives of the 3 provinces Tibetans and the schools of the Bouddhisme Tibetan were elected with the Assemblée of the Deputies of the people Tibetan. In 1964, the people Tibetan in exile elected the members of the Parliament for the first time. In 1990 the members of the Parliament elected the ministers (Kalons) for the first time and in 1991, the Constitution for a free Tibet future was promulgated. More recently, in 2001, for the first time, the Prime Minister, (Kalon Tripa) was elected by the vote for all. It is Professor Samdhong Rinpoché which was chosen by the population Tibetan in exile,
He does not ask any more independence, but a real autonomy for TibetSince the opening of Deng Xiaoping which declared in 1979 that apart from independence all was debatable, Dalaï Lama does not ask any more for independence, but a real autonomy of the Tibet within the Popular republic of China, while basing himself on the Chinese constitution. In 1987, the Dalaï Lama presented her Peace plan in five points for Tibet which proposes (1) the transformation of the whole of Tibet into a peace zone, (2) the abandonment by China of its policy of transfer of population which endangers the existence of the Tibetans as people, (3) the respect of the basic rights and the democratic liberties of the people Tibetan, (4) the restoration and environmental protection naturalness of Tibet, as well as the suspension by China of its policy of use of Tibet in the production of nuclear weapons and to bury there nuclear waste, (5) the engagement of serious negotiations in connection with the future status of Tibet and the relations between the people Tibetan and Chinese.
International recognition: the Nobel Prize of Peace…In 1989, it receives the Nobel Prize of peace, the year of the 30e birthday of its exile, beginning of its religious and political resistance. This recognition marked the beginning of an international awakening of the urgency of a peaceful solution for the Tibet; it also constituted an important encouragement for the Peuple Tibetan.
The September 27th 2006, the Gold medal of the Congress, the highest American civil distinction, is allotted to him by a vote of the Congrès of the United States of America. It is given to him at the time of a ceremony the October 17th 2007 (see hereafter: Topicality).
Dialog with scientistsIn 1973, it went to the university astronomy of Cambridge. It showed a great interest for science and will recontra Francisco Varela later ten years, at the time of the conference Alpbach Symposia one Consciousness . Following this meeting, and with that between Varela and R. Adam Engle, a meeting with Dharamsala took place: the first of a series of exchanges between the dalaï LAMA and the scientists under the aegis of the Mind and Life Institute, association with nonlucrative goal which attempts to explore the relation of science and Buddhism like methodologies in the comprehension of the nature of reality.
Future of Tibet?The fight for the freedom of the Tibet carried out with an exemplary perseverance by the 14th Dalaï Lama received an important echo in Occident. Since its exile in 1959, it is systematically denounced by the Chinese government which describes it as freedom fighter. However, since 1979, it does not require any more independence of Tibet, but a real autonomy of historical Tibet within the Popular republic of China, while being based on the Chinese constitution. Dalaï Lama wishes to discuss the future statute of the whole of Tibet, while the Chinese government requires the recognition of the membership of Tibet in China, in precondition to any negotiation. On this point, Dalaï Lama expressed himself with many recoveries to repeat that it does not wish to separate Tibet from China, and seeks a real autonomy of the whole of Tibet within the Popular republic of China. So discussions between emissary of Dalaï Lama, Lodi Gyari and Kelsang Gyaltsen, with representatives of the Chinese government began in 2002, no direct negotiation between Dalaï Lama, her Gouvernement Tibetan in exile and the Chinese government did not still begin.
Tibetans suggested that the 17th Karmapa, Orgyen Trinley Dorje, which escaped from the Tibet the day before the year 2000, could in the future replace the Dalaï Lama if it took its retirement as a chief of the Gouvernement Tibetan in exile.
In 1997, two films are carried out, telling the life of the 14th Dalaï Lama:
- Kundun of Martin Scorsese, recalls the youth of Tenzin Gyatso, its country birth to its exile towards India, in 1959.
- Seven Years in Tibet of Jean-Jacques Annaud, tells the history of the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer between 1939 and 1951, and in particular its meeting with the 14th Dalaï Lama, then 6 years old and of which he will become the friend.
In 2004, the Québécois film what there remain us , documentary realized by François Prévost and Hugo Latulippe, shows the return of an young woman originating in Tibet and refugee to Quebec, which goes in its country of origin with the two realizers. Carrying a message of encouragement filmed of the Dalai Lama to his people, they meet in secrecy of the Tibetans who view the message.
The 14th dalaï LAMA seen of RPC
These paragraphs present the Chinese theses . Here the judgment and the Chinese official story (moderate version) of XIVe dalaï LAMA, such as a majority of the nationals of RPC would present them. Like 1.3 billion Chinese, from which the Tibetans learn this history and judge according to it Dalaï Lama, its presentation is important for all those which want to know Tibet.
Official summary of the life of Dalaï Lama by China
In May 1951, the 14th dalaï LAMA formally accepted, with the central government and of the area of Tibet, the Accord in 17 points on the peaceful release of Tibet . Appointed of Tibet, it took part in the first National People's Assembly in 1954 and was selected as chief of the autonomous region of Tibet.
During its voyage 3 months in India, the 14th dalaï LAMA was let involve by elements sissionnists and since 1957, he plotted with the aristocracy to organize rebellions. Exiled in 1959, the dalaï LAMA was based on the foreign anti-Chinese forces to spread false rumors. On the basis of their own spiritual needs, the Westerners qualified it " messenger of the paix" and of " defender of the rights of the homme".
This top-ranking executive of Buddhism Tibetan gave up the traditional Patriotisme paved LAMA, invented of any part a " government in exil" to divide the fatherland, betraying at the same time the fatherland and the people Tibetan.
Since 1979, the leaders of the RPC always had the same requirement in its connection: “The fundamental problems consist in recognizing that Tibet forms integral part of China. ” From this point, any discussion is possible.
Setting in prospect
The monks and the aristocrats Tibetans, for the majority, summer opposed to Communism, of the fact in particular of the official Athéisme of the mode and the collectivization of the grounds involving the disappearance of the capacity of the monasteries and the aristocracy Tibetan, but also of the famines from where the revolts which started in 1957.
Another concept to be noticed: PCC, as a sole party is assimilated at the Chinese State, the China. It results from this that any organization not integrated into him is anti-Chinese, from where the recurring term " anti-Chinese forces étrangères".
the agreement in 17 points is a document signed by the representatives of the 14th Dalaï Lama and those of the Popular republic of China the May 23rd 1951 with Beijing. However, this agreement was denounced by the Dalaï Lama and her government, because according to them it was signed by the Tibetans under the constraint. On his arrival in exile in India, the 14th Dalai Lama gave a declaration of press, on April 18th, 1959, where he affirms that the agreement in 17 points had been signed under the pressure of the Chinese government.
It should however be noted that the Accord in 17 points on the peaceful release of Tibet of 1951 was the first document in the history Tibetan which issued Chinese sovereignty on the Tibet, even if he recognized the right to the Gouvernement of Dalaï Lama to continue to manage the Tibet.
At the beginning, Dalaï Lama was personally in favor of the reforms which were proposed by Mao Zedong to modernize Tibet and was of opinion to try to reach an operational compromise with the Chinese. It was in particular about a socialist transformation campaign “of agriculture”.
However, the manner with which the reform was applied, and in particular its imposition by the force will involve a revolt of the population Tibetan. About 1955-56, the situation inside the Tibet started to worsen quickly. Within the Chinese government, the partisans of the hard line pushed to start to apply “the socialist transformation” to Tibet. In the Kham, the Tibetans started to rebel. Indeed, at the end of 1955, Li Jingquan, the Secretary of the Party in Sichuan, began the reforms in the sectors Tibetans of Sichuan, the Kham. The result of this countryside was disastrous for Tibet since it led to a major revolt in the area of the Kham (is of Tibet). Refugees Tibetans flowed in central Tibet and this revolt overflowed finally on political Tibet and was a major factor precipitating rising with Lhassa of 1959.
Mao made a last attempt to save his policy gradualist in 1957 when it reduced the number of Han frameworks and troops to Tibet and wrote to Dalaï Lama promising to him that China would not apply the socialist reforms to the grounds to Tibet for the six next years. Moreover, at the end of this period, Mao declared that it would still give the reforms if the conditions were not ripe.
However agitation in Tibet developed and in March 1959, an important rising developed in Lhassa. Dalaï Lama due to leave Tibet for the exile in India. Dalaï Lama denounced the Accord in 17 points on the peaceful release of Tibet and sought an international support to solve the conflict with the Tibet. The Question of Tibet then seemed an international problem.
International influenceJune 15th, 2007, the Prime Minister Australia N John Howard receives Dalai Lama, China emits, like it does it systematically, of the objections of circumstance.
In spite of the dissatisfaction with the Chinese government Dalaï Lama will be received by 4 other Western leaders. Thus, the Austrian chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer receives it in September 2007 with the Chancellery. Within the framework of a voyage in Europe, Dalaï Lama recently visited the Spain where it gave a conference on September 10th, 2007 in front of approximately 10.000 people. , September 12th, 2007, it inaugurated a new Foundation of the House of Tibet in Barcelona. September 13rd, it gave a conference to the Portugal. It in particular met Jaime Gama, President of the Parlement of Portugal. It will meet also the former president Jorge Sampaio in her capacity as High representative of UNO for the alliance of civilizations. It had already received it in 2001, whereas he was President of Portugal. The September 23rd 2007, Dalai Lama met during a meeting deprived without precedent the federal Chancelière of Germany, Angela Merkel with the Chancellery with Berlin.
The October 16th, Dalai Lama met the President of the United States, George W. Bush with the White House with Washington, cd.. The October 17th, with the Congress of the United States, George W. Bush attended the handing-over of the Gold medal in Dalaï Lama, i.e. the highest civil distinction which can be granted by the the United States. According to Lodi Gyari, it is " a gesture of the Congress to send a powerful message to Chinois". He added “we do not speak about independence, but about complete freedom of the Tibetans religion culture". In exile in India, the 17th Karmapa, Orgyen Trinley Dorje declared that he was delighted by this " the historical day with largest plaisir". " With the Tibet, the monks of the monasteries of Drepung and Nechung wanted celebrated the event. They ran up against 3000 Chinese police officers of the army of the people during 4 days, and of many monks were wounded and stopped., the October 29th 2007, Stephen Harper, Prime Minister for the Canada, met the Dalaï Lama who is honorary citizen of Canada since September 9th, 2006. , They is the 4th leaders of a Western country which it meets these last months. The visit has, according to the Canadian press, a strong political character. However, according to the Dalaï Lama, who will give a conference on the " citizenship mondiale" , its visit revêt not of political character but will relate to the promotion of the human values.
- “With far freedom” autobiography, Delivers pocket 1993, ISBN 225306498X
- the Art of happiness: Wisdom and serenity with the daily newspaper, Editeur I read 2000, ISBN 2290303410 (a " Best Seller")
- Footbridges, discussions with scientists on the nature of the spirit, with Francisco Varela, and Claude Levenson, Albin Michel 1995, Pocket: Albin Michel 2000, ISBN 2226115102
- Capacity of the Discussions spirit with scientists , Dalaï Lama XIV, Editions Beech, 09/2000, ISBN 221360715X
- When the spirit dialogs with the body , Daniel Goleman, Editeur Guy Trédaniel 11/1998, ISBN 9782857079262
- Dormir, to dream, die, explore the conscience with Dalaï Lama , Francisco J. Varela, Claude Levenson, the Nile editions 1998, ISBN 2841110990
- Surmonter the destroying emotions, a scientific dialog with Dalaï Lama , Dalaï Lama, Daniel Goleman, Editeur Robert Laffont, 10/2003, ISBN 2221093011
- " To live the meditation with the quotidien" Dewatshang editor, ISBN 9782909858005
- " The Way of the Light, an introduction to the bouddhisme" ED Dangles 1996, Editeur I read, 1999, ISBN 2290053708
- " The direction of the life, reincarnation and liberté" , ED Dangles, ISBN 2703304528
- " The teaching of Paved Lama" Albin Michel 1987, ISBN 222602946X
- “Wisdom old, modern world” ED LGF Delivers pocket 2002, ISBN 2253152900
- “the Lord of the white lotus” of Claude B. Levenson. Its life written by its biographer, ED LGF Delivers pocket 1990, ISBN 2253053309
- “Wise words of the Dalai Lama” Catherine Barry, ED I read, 2000, ISBN 229032003X
Speech of Dalaï Lama concerning the Tibetan cause
More recently, in Melbourne in Australia, Dalaï Lama declared that the culture Tibetan could " finir" in 15 years if the China does not grant to the Tibet a real autonomy. " Our approach does not seek independence. We seek a true autonomy to preserve the culture Tibetan, the language Tibetan and the environment tibétain." Dalaï Lama as declared as many Tibetans developed a frustration because of absence of progress in the discussions with China. " If the current location remains the same one, then I think that in 15 years it is finished for Tibet" he declared.
- Government Tibetan in exile
- Dalaï LAMA and List of the Dalai Lama
- Panchen LAMA
- Mind and Life Institute
Official site of the dalaï LAMA (in English)
- Article on Tenzin Gyatso on the official site of information of the Chinese government
- Buddhism and spirituality
- Official site of Mind and Life Institute
- Various lesson of Its Holiness Dalaï Lama
|Random links:||Gailhan | Brian Kerwin | Rio Muriaé | Tiara of Saïtapharnès | QS9000 | Mariage_de_Fred|