The tennis is a Sport of racket which opposes either two players (one speaks then about simple) or four players who train two teams of two (one speaks then about double). The players use a racket twisted vertically and horizontally with a tension varying with the power which one wants to obtain. This racket, whose materials can vary, is used to strike a rubber ball, filled of air and covered with felt. The goal of the play is to strike the ball so that the adversary cannot give it within the limits of the ground:
- is by marking the point by putting the adversary out of reach ball;
- is by obliging it to make a fault (if its ball does not fall down within the limits of short, or if it does not pass the net).
Tennis is one of the most popular sports of racket, as well as the Table tennis, or the Badminton, which remains the disciplines most practiced in Asia.
Origin of the wordWhen the Moyen-âge one played palm, the waiter had habit to announce its sending with the adversary while shouting to him “Hold! ”. In Former French, the requirement of the verb to hold decided “Tenèts! ”. When the English borrowed the play of palm and its terminology, they heard “Tenèts”, “Tennis”, from where “tennis”.
Birth of tennisTennis is an English adaptation of the Jeu of palm. Following the Battle of Azincourt (1415), the duke of Orleans is imprisoned during two decades in England. At the time of this captivity with Wingfield in the county of Norfolk, the duke introduces in England the Jeu of palm which it practices almost daily.
Tennis was born according to the sources between 1858 and 1870 is more than four centuries later. In 1858 major Harry Gem outlines a kind of tennis court on the grass of its property: he plays a game rather similar to current tennis. About 1863 Major Walter Clopton Wingfield, the descendant of the lord of the manor of Wingfield, practices also a kind of tennis in his residence in London. Towards 1869 in Warwickshire, Harry Gem and its Spanish friend Augurio Perera try out a new version of the play which they called initially wound into a ball later then lawn rackets . Gem, Perera, Frederic Haynes and Arthur Tomkin form a club with Leamington: it is the first club of lawn tennis of the world. It is thus probably Harry Gem which invented the " tennis moderne" (resulting from the play of French palm) but it is Wingfield which passed to the posterity because it marketed this sport under the name of " Sphairistike" February 23rd 1874 but he did not invent it as the legend claims it. The sphairistike is the consequence of the play of palm and the invention of the rubber which makes it possible to carry out balls being able to rebound on grass. It is the missing link between the play of palm and tennis. Tennis in England has besides as a name Lawn Tennis (tennis on English grass) while the play of palm is indicated under the name Real Tennis (true tennis). The word “tennis” itself comes from the warning “Hold! ” that the launcher of ball gave at the beginning of an exchange to the play of palm.
It seems that the first tennis tournament took place in August 1876 on a court arranged in the property of Mr. William Appleton in Nahant in Massachusetts and gained by James Dwight. The Tournoi of Wimbledon in 1877 of the 9 follows to 16 (or 19) July, future Internationaux amateurs of Great Britain, which is thus the oldest still existing tournament. The final of the first edition is played in front of 200 spectators. The English Spencer Gore asserts himself as simple Sirs (24 participants). At the time of this tournament, the rules of the sphairistike of Wingfield are modified by the organizers who become, in fact, and during one decade, the only authority as regards tennis.
The France, formerly ground of election par excellence of the Play of palm, does not wait a long time to succumb to the charms of the tennis promoted by Wimbledon. As of 1878, the first club of tennis is founded in France with Dinard, in Brittany. In same time, the first parts take place in Australia.
Other tournaments follow very quickly: in 1878 a tournament would have been organized in Montreal Cricket Club, and besides the first championships amateurs of Scotland took place in indoor on wood this same year, the Championships amateurs of Ireland began in 1879 in Fitzwilliam Club from Dublin, those of Bohemia the same year and those of the Australian colony of Victoria with Melbourne in 1880, each colony Australian creates its tournament well before the 1st Australian national championship, organized in 1905 and entitled " International of Australasie" , future Open of Australia. The championships of the United States are organized for the first time at Newport in 1881 (the 1st edition reserved to the citizens of the country is the ancestor of the US Open, etc). Tennis was thus born under the era victorienne with rules victoriennes: the sport under these conditions can be practiced only like one leisure by rich person aristocrats, therefore without need for money to live, and cannot thus be the subject of a remunerated profession. This explains why the professionals of the tennis are a long time banished circuit traditional and considered as the pestiferous ones. Moreover persons in charge of tennis, very jealous of their authority, another heritage of the time victorienne, do not wish absolutely to deal with professional players independent of their will: it is thus another reason to draw aside the " pros" traditional circuit. Later in 1891 the Championship of France of tennis is created which becomes truly international in 1925 under the name " International of France of tennis".
In 1933 when the Australian Crawford Jack which gained the International amateurs of Australia, of France with Roland Garros, Great Britain to Wimbledon, also reached the final of the International amateurs of the United States with Forest Hills, the journalists John Kieran and Allison Danzig use for the first time the expression " Large Slam" (drawn from the brigde and also from the golf) by evoking a possible victory of Australian in the four tournaments the same year. These championships start to take importance because the four countries hosts are the only countries of the time which gained the Coupe Davis which is the greatest international competition amateur during at least 40 years of 1920 to 1960 (it often indicates number 1 world amateur and has much more importance than Wimbledon or Forest Hills). This competition is created by Dwight Davis in 1900 and initially opposes only British Isles to the United States. There is no edition in 1901. Then other countries wish to take part and until in the 1973 only 4 quoted countries gain this competition by teams. In 1938 Donald Budge with the idea to gain the championships of the 4 victorious countries of the Cut: he is thus the first player with consciously trying the Grand Slam (Crawford did not have any intention in the beginning to go to the United States because in particular he suffered from the New Yorkean climate) and making a success of it. This becomes the true individual reference of tennis amateur in the years 1950, more precisely in 1956 when Lew Hoad is with two fingers (two sets precisely) to achieve this exploit. When tennis becomes " Open" in 1968 the Large Slam becomes Graal of all the players. The female version of the Coupe Davis is the Coupe of the Federation, better known today under the name of “Fed Cup”.
First championsThe competition, formerly very sharp, between amateurs and professionals, did not make possible, for a long time, to establish objective classifications of the best players. The professionals are prohibited until March 1968 of any competition organized by the International federation (Coupe Davis…) or by the National federations (International of the countries like those of the Large Slam…). Nevertheless certain comparisons between these various players were possible (for example: in January 1963 Rod Laver, victorious of the Large Slam in 1962, was opposed to the two best professionals of 1962, Kenneth Robert Rosewall and Lewis Alan Hoad, within the framework of a round in Australasia on grass: To wash gained 2 matches and underwent… 19 defeats, clearly indicating the supremacy of the old professionals) : it seems that starting from 1948 the best player of the world was probably always a professional player. Since 1931 all great champions of the pre-" era; open" passed professional and, if one excludes Henri Cochet, they reached all their apogee in the circuit pro: Bill Tilden, Henri Cockerel, Ellsworth Fortify, Fred Perry, Donald Budge, Bobby Riggs, Jack Kramer, Pancho Segura, Pancho Gonzales, Frank Sedgman, Tony Trabert, Ken Rosewall, Lew Hoad, Rod Laver.
See also: Tennis players world numbers 1
In 1966 of the talks engage between the leaders of Wimbledon and Jack Kramer then promoter of professional tennis to organize a professional tournament in the " Temple" the following year: one month and half after the traditional tournament amateur of Wimbledon, sponsored BBC2 a professional tournament of eight players from August 25th to 28th 1967. This tournament meeting a very sharp success near the public and of the televiewers, the president of Wimbledon, Hermann David, decides with autumn 1967 that next traditional Wimbledon (in 1968) would be " Open" i.e. " ouvert" with the professional players. March 30th 1968 the International federation accepts that ten tournaments will be opened with all the players: the first of them is organized in Bournemouth and starts on April 21st, 1968. Despite everything the International federation and the promoters of the professional play continue to fight itself: it is necessary to wait more than four years (August 1972) so that tennis is completely " Open" i.e. the segregation between pros and amateurs flies in glares.
Not to be completely dependant on their leaders more (on a side federations for the players amateurs and on another side promoters for the professional players) which imposed the competitions to them that they were (or did not have) to dispute, the players linked in September 1972, at the time of the US Open, the only tournament of the Large Slam of the year when all the best players take part (in Wimbledon and Roland Garros the professionals under contract are excluded in 1972), to create the first trade union gathering all the players who wish it: the Association off Tennis Professionals (ATP). This association tries to organize the circuit tennistic in " collaboration" with the Federations and in August 1972 sets up the circuit of ATP Tour: consequently the ATP, which escapes besides a little the players themselves, manages all the tests of the principal circuit except the tournaments of the Grand Slam and the Coupe Davis which raise, them, of the International federation and the respective National federations. ATP published on August 23rd 1973 its first world classification, whose Roumanian Ilie Năstase was the first number one.
On its side, Wimbledon remains a bastion of conservatism. While all the other tournaments authorize from now on the wearing of clothing coloured with the players, the Tournament of Wimbledon maintains the obligation of the white behavior, faithful to its traditions.
Suzanne Lenglen, as for it contributed to the success of tennis, being the first genuine female high-speed motorboat of the discipline; it will take part in particular so that one will call the match of the century, in Cannes, that it will gain against Helen Wills; the same year it will leave tennis amateur and will become the head of poster of the 1st professional round in North America. But in spite of this precedent, female tennis then pains to continue and it is necessary to wait the years 1960 to see players influencing the course of the events. At the image of the boys, the girls set up a professional circuit which pains to be established. WTA installs professional female tennis definitively.
The Open eraIn 1968, modern and professional tennis is born truly with the beginning from the era Open. The four tournaments of the Large Slam, go major of the season give up their statute of tournament reserved to the amateurs, and open their doors with the professional players. Little by little, the whole of the players of circuit professionnalise. It is starting from this date that one regards professional tennis as modern; the era of the statistics and the records starts.
The career of Martina Navrátilová, begun in 1973 was marked by the use of novel methods of preparations, with a physical preparation and a psychological preparation thorough, with in particular the use of data processing to analyze the matches and to study the sequences of play data processing holds now an important place in the evolution of the players, since the trainers even nowadays use it on a level amateur.
The policy of leaders like Philippe Chatrier, president of the International federation of tennis of 1977 with 1991, determining on the international plan, but is rather badly prepared with the national plan. Indeed, if tennis takes off its dress of sport for privileged and becomes accessible, the installation of an operation called “5000 courts”, launched by Philippe Chatrier and the French federation of tennis, will cause economically to destabilize the existing clubs in France by creating microphone-clubs made up of one or two grounds without real reception facilities; the effect of powdering in term of members will be made feel during decades and will be at the origin of the crisis of French tennis.
Tennis democratizes and counts more than one million bachelors in France since the beginning of the Années 1980.
The major exploit of male tennis as female remains the Large Slam: to gain the four major tournaments the same year. Don Budge made a success of it but at one time when tournaments amateurs and professionals were separate; Australian the Rod Laver succeeded in the exploit to carry it out twice: in 1962, but also in 1969 pennies the era " Open" whereas all the players were brought together on a world circuit (the Open era starts for tennis in 1968), which constitutes an authentic exploit. The women are more numerous to have carried it out, with in particular Australian the Margaret Smith Court in 1970, and Allemande Steffi Graf in 1988.
Historical origin of the pointsThe singular accountancy of tennis is also dependant on the play of palm. This way of counting, by multiple of fifteen, comes us from this play, resulting straight of the Middle Ages where figure 60 was the numerical symbol most widespread. At the time, one counted time (60 minutes) and the money (a gold sum of money was worth 15 pennies) this way. This is why it is not known any more very well today if it is by referring to the figures of the clock or to the currency that one goulûment bet there (incidentally, one called the plays of palm of the gambling dens) whom one started to count 15,30,45 and play. One does not know too much why the 45 made place to the 40 in the pointing. Some believe that it is simply about the use of a diminutive which, with the use, became the rule. The human one being lazy of nature, it was shorter to pronounce 40. Disputed assumption which only remains nevertheless.
The expression “deuce” would be a cultural loan with the countable system of the play of palm. Returned with equality, the referee declared “to two”, which meant that the players were at two points (consecutive) to gain the play. It “to two” repeated by English mouths with the French, took the skinned form of “deuce”. This use is practiced as of the Middle Ages concerned of palm.
Several assumptions are advanced to explain this system, but none could be validated. Chronologically, the first advanced assumption goes back to 1431. The Flemish lawyer Jan Van den Berghe publishes the Play of palm moralized . To explain the manner of counting, it states a pious explanation: the player who marks a point is compared to a Juste and sees his reward multiplied by 15. Another track, the bet S, which were current at the time of the meetings of Jeu of palm. Certain numismatists then point out that the French currency included/understood since 1340 the gold double which were worth 60 pennies and the gold sum of money which was worth 15 pennies. The players would have taken the practice to count the points in money value, i.e. in multiple of 15. However, the study of the letters of remission show that the stakes often did not reach such important sums. In spite of this opinion of Érasme which appears final, that the encyclopedists of the 18th century take again, other assumptions, more or less whimsical, are stated since the end of the 16th century. According to the testimony of Jean Goselin, bookseller of king de France in 1579, this way of counting would refer to astronomy and the sexagesimal Système used for calculations of angles. Each physical sign is divided into 60 degrees, to divide a physical sign into four shares gives 15 degrees per share. For Charles Delahaye, player of palm to the 19th century, 15 represents a distance of 15 feet. The control line and the net are separated from 60 feet, that is to say four times 15 feet. Charles Delahaye known as to have attended a part where the points were not counted, but that the winner of the point each time advanced of 15 feet until it reaches the net and gains the play then.
The counting of the points
In a Simple meeting of like Double , each player is useful in turn throughout a play. The player who is useful must imperatively be placed behind the basic line of runs at the time when it strikes his service. The waiter has moreover two services: if it misses the first, often struck with a certain risk, it profits from one second ball of service, in general struck with more precaution. The receiver, on the other hand can place himself where it wishes it on the court to turn over the service. He is to him nevertheless interdict to intercept with stolen (i.e. without leaving rebound) the service of that which is useful.
Most of the time, it is necessary to gain two sets in order to gain the part. The only exception is that of the matches male table at the time of meetings in tournaments of the Grand Slam, or in Coupe Davis. To gain a sleeve, it is necessary to be the first to mark six plays with at least two plays of variation, in the contrary case the sleeve continues. The possible scores to gain a set are as follows: 6/0, 6/1, 6/2, 6/3, 6/4 and 7/5 (if the two players could not decide between themselves at the end of ten plays). If two players have not be in measurement to decide between during twelve first plays (thus with equality with 6/6), they dispute Play decisive ( tie break in English), which is worth a play, and thus allows to gain sleeve 7/6. On the other hand, in the tournaments of the large slam, except the US Open, at the men as among women, it does not have there decisive play in the decisive sleeve (the fifth at the men, the third among women), and the match is gained only when one manages to have two plays in advance on the adversary; for example 8/6, 9/7, 10/8, etc
The invention of the decisive play date of 1970, is two years after the beginning of the open era. The finality of this play was to prevent interminable matches, because it happened at the time that sets are gained on the score of 29/27 for example. The principle of the decisive Jeu is rather simple. The players are useful in turn. That which begins is useful only once from right to left, then its adversary is used twice as continuation, from left to right, then from right to left, and so on. Gaining sleeve is the first player to reach seven points with at least two points of variation (Ex: 7/2, 7/5, 9/7…) The sleeve is then gained on the score of 7-6.
In the youngest players, the rules of play are softened. Indeed, until the eleven years age, in France, a sleeve is gained when a player reached 5 plays with two plays in advance on its adversary. In the event of equality with 4 plays everywhere, the players also decide between with a decisive play .
In the play in double, the match proceeds with best of the 2 sets, it is thus necessary to gain the 2 sets to gain the match. If the two teams gain each one a set, for example: 6-3 3-6; one proceeds to a " super tie break " of ten points to decide between the two opposite teams: he is regarded as decisive set. The " super tie break " is held in the same way that the " play décisif" , it is thus necessary to gain ten points with at least two points of variation (Ex: 10/5, 10/7, 11/9…).
A sleeve is thus gained by marking a certain number of plays. As mentioned above, each player is useful in turn, throughout play. In order to gain a play, it is necessary to mark at least four points, is on its service when one is useful, that is to say on the unfavourable service when one receives. It is thus possible, either for the waiter, or for the receiver to gain a play, even if theoretically, the waiter is favoured compared to the receiver. If the two adversaries mark three points, there is a situation of equality, explained hereafter. At the time of a play, here the way in which the points are deducted:
- zero ( coils English ) for any point marked in the play, " love" would come from French " the œuf" who of share his form meant zero point .
- fifteen ( fifteen in English) for a marked point,
- thirty ( thirty in English) for two marked points,
- forty ( forty in English) for three marked points.
When the two players marked three points, (thus to 40/40), there is equality. That which marks the following point obtains a favors . To mark the play, a player who with the advantage must mark another point. If it is the player who does not have the advantage which marks the following point, one returns to equality, and so on until one of the two players gains the play. It should be noted that in the old young children with more than 11 years, the rule of the advantage does not exist. It is the rule of the " No-ad" (No Advantage) which is exerted. The player who receives chooses his zone of return of service for the decisive point (always to 40-40).
To the level of the arbitration, one always gives the score of the waiter in first. For example, if the waiter marks three points against two with its adversary, the score is 40/30. In the contrary case, the score is 30/40. It is the same on the level of the advantages , when there is equality in a play. When it is the waiter which with the advantage, the referee will announce favors then the name of the player or the player. In double, the referee will announce the name of the waiter or relancor. However, in the event of Championship by team or national teams (Coupe Davis or Fed Cup, for example), the name of the club or country is then given.
Match and set, station-wagon, game pointsAs mentioned above, the players are useful in turn, and the waiter changes at the end of each play. It is thus possible that the play either gained, or by the waiter, or by the receiver. Let us take the case where the waiter carries out 40/15. It does not remain to him whereas a point to be registered before gaining the play. It will thus on two occasions to be used for to gain the play. Even if the following point is lost, the waiter always carries out 40/30, and is at a point of the play. One speaks then about game point , and in this case, to 40/15, the waiter has two game points. In the contrary case, i.e. if it is the receiver who carries out; for example to 15/40, one will say that the receiver has two balls of station-wagon . If the play is converted by the receiver, one will speak then about station-wagon. At the time of the following play, the receiver passes to the role of waiter. If it gains its setting concerned, the station-wagon is confirmed. Thus, if two players who clash do not manage to be detached one from the other (not station-wagons, or the same number of station-wagon in the two players), they arrive at 6/6, and dispute a tie break.
The principle is the same one with the set points, and the match points, when one or the other of the players is at a point to gain the sleeve or the meeting. For example, if a player (who is useful) carries out 5/4 40/15, it has two set points. Another example, a player who carries out 3/6 7/5 5/1 40/30 offers a match point…
FaultsOne distinguishes several types of faults to tennis. A ball for example will be announced fault (or out in English) when it does not fall down within the limits of the ground. The point is then granted to the adversary. When the ball falls into the net, as regards player who struck the ball, the point is also granted to the adversary, but it is not necessary to announce fault. The referee should not announce a ball besides which falls into the net like fault . Of course, these faults are very frequent at the time of all the matches, because it is impossible not to make any error during a match.
The service must be struck in diagonal so that the ball falls into the square from service. If the ball does not fall into the square from service at the time of the setting concerned, the referee announces fault , and the waiter must, is to serve one second ball if the fault occurs on the first service, that is to say to grant the point to the adversary if the fault occurs on the second ball of service. When the two services are faults (they do not fall into the squares from service, or fall into the net), one speaks about double fault . The point is then granted to the receiver. When with the service, the ball touches the band of the net and falls down in the square of service where the player was supposed to be useful, the referee announces let , the ball is not fault, and the player can rejouer the service. On the other hand, if the ball of the waiter touches the band of the net and fall apart from the square from service, the ball is announced fault, and the player must either pass to his second ball, or to grant the point to the adversary according to whether it struck a first or a second ball.
A more complex fault relates to the waiter. Indeed, to carry out a valid service, it is necessary that the ball is struck before the player does not cross the basic line of short. Thus, when the player strikes his service, and already part of its body has which touches the ground, the service is refused. The player can then is to strike one second ball of service (if its fault were made on the first ball), that is to say to grant the point to the adversary if this fault occurs on the second ball. This fault, rather seldom announced because difficult to judge, is named for lack of foot . The for lack of foot is also valid on a side level: the waiter must be good side of the ground of such kind to be useful in a diagonal. If the waiter is useful on the right, it must be held in the right part of the ground, without being in the prolongation of the corridor. In double, the waiter is authorized to be useful in the prolongation of the corridor.
The court, and the equipment
The Tennis court corresponds to the adventure playground. Its dimensions are very precise. It must obligatorily have lines painted with a white painting, in order to facilitate their legibility. The courts of tennis are declined on several surfaces, which are approached in the continuation of the article. Each surface has its particular characteristics (speed, rebound) what contributes to the diversity of the possible plays.
As presented on the image attached, the Tennis court must be 23,77 meters (that is to say 26 Yard S) length for 8,23 meters (9 yards) broad. That thus represents 11,89 meters (13 yards) length on each side of the net, and 8,23 meters of width for a meeting of simple, or the side corridors are not entered. For the play in double, two corridors of 1,37 meter are added. The width of the court of double is thus of 10,97 meters (12 yards) On the ground one finds five kinds of different lines:
- basic lines at each end; a mark indicates the medium of this line;
- the control lines parallel with the net which delimit the square of service placed at 6,40 meters (7 yards) of the net;
- the mediator with the net which divides into two the square of service;
- the lines on side into simple which delimit the zone of play for a part into simple;
- the lines on side in double which delimit the zone of play for a part in double.
There exist also dimensions concerning the distance to the bottom of the court and on the sides: spaces of 5,50 meters at the bottom and 3,05 meters on the sides (they are the minimal distances imposed by the French federation of tennis in the clubs).
The netIts height is fixed at the ends to 1,07 m, its height in its center 0,914 m maintained using a regulator. The regulator consists of a white strap of a width of 5 cm to the maximum. The system of closing of the regulator must guarantee the maintenance this constant height throughout one four hour. The net must be of dark color and the band of net of white color with a dimension of 10 with 13 cm, folded back each side of the net.
The net is supported by two posts having a square or round section of a maximum width of 10 cm. The axis of these posts is placed at 0,914 m outside the side lines of short. When part of simple is played on a court equipped with a net of double, 2 1,07 m high stakes are placed in the corridors to 0,914 m outside the lines of simple (either to the 2/3 of the corridor).
The Raquette was invented at the beginning of the 16th century to practice the Jeu of palm. It is declined from now on of tens of models, intended for all the types of players, and for the compositions sometimes radically different. The principal innovation of these last years lies in the materials which are used in the design of the framework (left rigid the racket.), and which made it possible to gain at the same time in power, and lightness, making the play increasingly comfortable. Among materials used, one thus finds the Graphite, the Titane, steel, etc the various equipment suppliers also propose many concepts aiming at facilitating the play (reduction of the vibrations, power and control optimized…).
It should be known that if the ranges and technologies evolve/move regularly, the majority of the players of very high level preserve their old model of many years, made up on the occasion by their sponsors to resemble the last models available. Moreover, their rackets are especially adapted to their request (weight, rigidity, length) and do not have thus little thing to see with those available in the trade.
See also: Rope (tennis)
A racket is not moreover made up that framework. The choice of the rope is also very important for the player. “The rope, it is the heart of the racket” said Arthur Ashe. There exist more very many models of ropes, manufactured in different materials (bowel of ox, matters synthetic), available in several gauges and to the particular characteristics (power, comfort, control, stability of the tension…).
BallsThe balls are rubber spheres, filled with air. They are covered with felt, and must imperatively be yellow or white in the official competitions. Their composition can vary according to the type of player who will use them (player leisure, regular or intensive, adult or young). The difference will be especially made on the level longevity. The balls of competition are indeed generally with pressure, with a quality of rebound and play optimal, but one limited enough lifespan (about two or three matches in players of competition).
The ball of tennis must have a diameter ranging between 6,350 and 6,668 cm, and its mass must vary between 56,7 and 58,5 grams. 254 cm height released and falling on a basis out of concrete, the ball must rebound between 134,62 and 147,32 cm.
In the beginning, the balls were white, but the yellow was essential in order to offer more visibility to the televiewers. The white balls are however always authorized.
ClothingAt the beginning of the century, tennis evolves/moves more quickly than the vestimentary fashion. Thus, the players come to play with their ties, their long-line bras or their flannels. Then, little by little, of the dresses appear and the players compete of standing while posting themselves with increasingly elegant clothing. The Frenchwoman Suzanne Lenglen then releases the sporting body of the woman, while becoming an icon of mode, the “divine one”.
Clothing did not cease evolving/moving since the beginning of the years 1980, becoming increasingly light and comfortable; shorts and shirts at the men, who succeed the sports shirts inspired by Rene Lacoste, dresses among women, who gradually wear shorts and dockers. The new fabric arrival, such as polyester at the end of the years 1990 makes it possible to manage perspiration as well as possible, making clothing more comfortable still. The most frequent behaviors currently are T-shirt and shorts at the men, docker and shorts at the ladies, however, the male docker and the dress remain appreciated by certain players.
In front of the arrival of large equipment suppliers in tennis, of the rules were installation concerning the size of the logos authorized on the shorts, sports shirts, skirts, dresses…
Surfaces of play
See also: Surfaces of play to tennis
A match of tennis is played on a court, whose coating can vary. Indeed, there exist various surfaces of play, whose characteristics are very variable, on the one hand with regard to the speed of the ball (certain surfaces are slow, others very fast), on the other hand the “quality” of the rebound (low rebound, or high rebound).
Four principal types of surfaces thus are distinguished:
hard surfaces: Rebound Ace, Decoturf, cement or quick. Hard surfaces, that one finds in the majority of the clubs, are in theory fast surfaces. On the other hand, the quality of the rebound is variable. The main advantage of fast surfaces results from little maintenance that they require, but n the other hand, hard surfaces are demanding physically, and require good supports.
the beaten Ground, surface of the tournament of Roland-Garros. The beaten ground is a slow surface, made up of a limestone cover covered with crushed brick or stone. The slowness of this surface tends to support the long exchanges what explains why the matches on beaten ground are in theory rather long.
the Grass, which is a rare surface, requiring a very important maintenance. The grass is a high-speed surface (even if speed were reduced during these last years) with a very low rebound. The grass is thus a surface which supports the tennis of attack (service, stolen), making it possible to conclude the exchange relatively quickly.
the synthetic surfaces, especially used in room ( indoor ): Gerflor, Taraflex, Greenset, Fitted carpet, sometimes parquet floor. These surfaces are very fast, and their characteristics are close to those of hard surfaces. They meet only seldom in the clubs, because they require an important maintenance.
Les principal effects of tennis
Tennis is a discipline of which basic blows: the right blow, the reverse and the service can be supported by printed effects with the ball, and which make evolve/move the behavior of this one. Here principal effects of modern tennis.
Play flatThe play flat does not correspond for a purpose strictly speaking, but it remains very much used on all surfaces. A ball struck flat will pass enough close to the net. It is the effect which offers the most power, because the trajectory of the ball is rather rectilinear. Strike flat are neutral on the speed level after the rebound, this one decreasing on average by 50%, against 25% for the top spin and 75% for a cut ball. Strike flat are used in attack as in defense, and allow most of the time a player in position of attack to finish the point. The balls flat are those which one finds more on fast surfaces which support a tennis of attack, where the power of the players can express oneself best.
The top spin
The top spin is an effect very much used in the players of all levels, because it is relatively simple to carry out and gets several advantages. Its principal attraction holds with safety that it gets compared to the net, because a ball top spin and whirling will flat follow a trajectory convex compared to a ball. Moreover, this same rotation printed with the ball enables him to fall down more quickly than a ball struck with another effect, and to accelerate after the rebound. Another effective application of the top spin is the Lob (ball of defense which aims at passing the adversary to the net) because a top spin lob will rise very quickly, and to fall down rather quickly in the court. Carried out well, it thus makes it possible to become a player to the net.
The top spin is an effect used attacks some as in defense. On a short ball, it makes it possible to accelerate with an important safety margin, but can also make it possible to change rate/rhythm. In the professional players, the top spin is used almost permanently, even if that does not seem perceptible: the balls completely flat are indeed used only to finish the point. Moreover, certain surfaces take the top spin best that others; the beaten Ground makes it possible for example to the large lifteurs to take the advantage in long exchanges, whereas on grass, where the rebound is much lower, the top spin is employed less, or in any case less effective.
Cut blows and effect retro
A cut ball is a ball which will be struck, with a rotation movement from the front to the back. A cut ball will thus tend to be slowed down before and after the rebound (where the speed of the ball decreases by 75%), and to be crushed (rebound highest under similar conditions), while passing moreover enough close to the net. A cut blow confers a certain safety however, because the ball is well controlled. The blow easiest to cut remainder the reverse, because the movement of racket top to the bottom is made in a rather natural way on this side. Generally used in defense, the cut blow makes it possible to be left difficult situations, or to break the rate/rhythm after an exchange dominated by the top spin or the blows flat. It is also possible to cross in right blow, especially in end of race, but the cut right blow remains often a defensive blow (or one deadened), whereas in reverse, it can be used to go up to the net, or to carry out a passing shot.
The retro effect is a very marked alternative of the cut blow, where the player really will come to rub the ball from the front to the back. This blow is often used on deadened balls, particularly on beaten ground, in order to obstruct the adversary in its race. Certain players are even able to put a retro effect which makes return the ball in their own camp after being fallen in that from the adversary.
Effects with the service
The sliceThe term of slice is applied most of the time to the service. A service slicé is, basically a cut service, even if the characteristics of these two types of effects are not completely identical. A ball slicée (“French trench”) is struck with dimensions one, so that a diagonal rotation movement is printed for him. The trajectory of a service slicé will not be rectilinear, contrary to that of a service flat, and the ball in flight will tend to move to follow a curved trajectory. Moreover, after the rebound, a ball slicée will tend to be crushed with rather low rebound, and to leave on the side.
The slice is an effect very much used on all surfaces. It is about an effect relatively simple to give to the service compared to top spin effect. For this reason of many players use it on their second ball of service, in order to better ensure the latter. Indeed, the slicé effect makes it possible to give to the ball a curvilinear trajectory, while allowing an important safety margin. A slicé service is moreover generally less powerful than a service flat. It is about a particularly effective weapon on the grass where the rebound is already lower than on other surfaces, because he makes it possible to make leave the adversary the ground, and thus to open the court. If the adversary does not use the same hand that the waiter, the slice is often played on its reverse, blow which is often the weak point of the players. The slicé service is moreover one weapon very much used by the left-handeds person, since he is played on with dimensions the " avantage" , therefore on a determining point.
Top spin service and kické
The top spin service is undoubtedly that which requires the most practice and of technique. Indeed, the top spin is an effect which requires to put the ball in rotation of back ahead, which is difficult to carry out when it is a question of striking it with the stop and the top of the head. But in compensation of these technical difficulties, top spin service, and its alternative kickée is extremely effective, especially in second ball. Indeed, the rotation printed with the ball enables him much more quickly to plunge once the crossed net, which makes it possible to give much speed to the ball. A successful top spin service will thus tend to pass high to the top it net before plunging, then to rebound very high because of effect of the ball. The alternative kickée of the top spin service consists in giving a top spin effect and slightly side with the ball, so that this one rises and shifts on the side after the rebound. The large majority of the high level players use the top spin service on their second ball, because the safety margin with the net is important, and a top spin service, once controlled, is controlled very easily. In first ball, a very top spin service can destabilize an adversary by forcing it to strike the ball in height.
The system of grading
The system of grading in France
The classification is allotted by the federation at the conclusion of each season. One calculates it starting from the assessment of each player, in agreement with the matches which he played. Thus, a player classified at a given level (NR) will obtain a certain number of points according to whether it beats a player classified at the N+2 level (150 points), N+1 (100 points), NR (50 points), N-1 (30 points), etc Ainsi, in accordance with a pre scale established, a player can pass from the classification NR to classification N+1, N+2, etc if it has the number of points necessary, but also be relegated to the lower classification if it does not obtain the points necessary to his maintenance with a given classification. It as should be retained as during the season, there are intermediate classifications. That gives you your classification in advance before the end of the season. Concerning the rise at the higher level, one needs not only the number of points necessary to the accession at the higher level, but also the number of points necessary to the maintenance with this classification. For example, a player classified 30/2 (see explanations on each classification thereafter) and wishing to go up on level 30/1 must initially obtain the points necessary to the rise (in fact 450.) To be harmonized then with this classification, its assessment of victories is recomputed, while considering thus that the player is 30/1. That means for example that victory over one 30/1 which was worth 100 points during the first calculation will be worth only 50 points at the time of the recalculation, in accordance with the scale explained above. It is then if it obtains the number of points of maintenance (in fact 235) which it is harmonized with classification 30/1, with which it will begin the following season.
In France, the system of grading can appear rather complicated to the neophytes:
- the player beginning starts with the statute of not classified (or NC).
- Comes then the players from fourth series: 40 (innovation of the season 2007-2008) then 30/5, 30/4, 30/3, 30/2, 30/1.
- the third series starts then with classification 30, then 15/5, 15/4, 15/3, 15/2, 15/1.
- One finds then the second series, where the classification becomes a kind of contest, the number of classifications available being limited. In other words, it is not enough to have the sufficient points to go up. After classification 15, one thus finds 5/6, 4/6, 3/6, 2/6, 1/6 then 0. (classification 0 is thus rather developing!).
- Then, the players are included in the category of the " négatifs" , with classifications -2/6, -4/6, -15 then -30. One then approaches the professional level, which requires to return to classification ATP (for the men) or WTA (for the women), with points obtained in the approved tournaments.
For the little story, this classification rises in fact from the system from counting from the points. Indeed, in the beginning, a handicap was created in order to balance in the various organized tests the chances of the candidates the ones compared to the others, taking into account the various levels of each one.
The base of this handicap was called level 0.
The hierarchy of the various levels of play, and the application that it resulted from it, in a meeting against a player of level 0, was the following one:
- the player of level 1/6 left 1 play out of 6 with 1 point allowance, i.e. it started the play in question with a score of 15/0 in his favor,
- the player of level 2/6 left 2 plays out of 6 with 1 point allowance,
- the player of level 3/6 left 3 plays out of 6 with 1 point allowance,
- the player of level 15 began all the plays with a score from 15/0 in its favor.
- the player of level 15/1 left with 2 points allowance 1 play out of 6, either a score of 30/0 in its favor and 5 plays out of 6 with only one point of allowance, or a score of 15/0,
- the player of level 15/2 left 2 plays out of 6 with 2 points allowance (30/0 in its favor) and 4 plays out of 6 with only one item (15/0),
- so on for the levels 15/3, 15/4, 15/5,
- the player of level 30 received 2 points of allowance (30/0 in its favor) to all the plays of the set (6 plays on 6).
For the negative levels of play, the same principle was applied, but with a penalization instead of an allowance. Thus, always in the case of a meeting with a player 0:
- player -2/6 left with 1 point penalty, 2 plays out of 6, that is to say a score of 15/0 in its discredit,
- the player -4/6: 1 point of penalty, 4 plays out of 6,
- the player -15: 1 point of penalty 6 plays out of 6, is all the plays of the set on a score of 15/0 against him.
The system of grading in Belgium
The AFT is the French-speaking association of tennis. The AFT is the federation which governs the rules of calculation of classification of tennis for the French-speaking community of the country. This chapter explains you these rules
Each player having a number of federation has a classification. The player not having never taken part in a tournament is NC (not classified). The classifications are divided into three categories:
- the series C
- the series B
- the series has (better Belgian players)
At the end of the season of tennis, the AFT takes again all the matches played by the player and carries out calculation.
Points are allotted to each match played by respecting the table below
Many allotted points:
the process is divided into 2 phases:
The first calculation consists in calculating the sum of the points obtained (see table above) for each meeting in the which player by taking account the current classification of the players took part.
If it obtains:
- -20 it is proposed with the descent
- between -19 and 349 It is proposed with the maintenance
- between 350 or 699 It is proposed with the rise of a classification
- between 700 and 1049 It is proposed with the rise of two classifications
- between 1050 and more It is proposed with the rise of three classifications
If the player obtains more than 1400 points, it can under decision federation assemble it of more than 3 classifications. The classifications NC and C30.5 are equivalent. To go up of C30.5 to 30.4 and C30.4 in C30.3, only 200 points are necessary (instead of 350)
The second calculation consists in calculating the sum of the points obtained (see table above) for each meeting in the which player took part by taking account the classification calculated with the first passage of the players. It is carried out if the player is proposed with the descent or the rise. In the case or the player is proposed with the maintenance, the second calculation is not necessary and the player will maintain his classification.
The player is proposed with the descent at the time of the first passage:
- If it obtains less than 350 points to the second calculation, it goes down from a classification
- If it obtains between 350 and more with the second calculation it maintains its classification
The player is proposed with the rise at the time of the first passage
- If it obtains less than 60 points, the proposal for a rise is refused
- If it obtains 60 points or more, the proposal for a rise is accepted. The player showed classification.
So during the first classification, the player is proposed with rise 2 classifications. The second calculation is carried out with the calculated classification (current classification + 2). If it obtains less than 60 points the player does not assemble two classifications but it is all the same proposed with rise a classification and the second calculation is carried out with (the current classification + 1).
Professional classificationsThe high level is thus composed of two principal circuits; the Classification WTA, female world classification, and the Classification ATP, world classification male, updated each week, and which count the results obtained at the time of the last 12 months of competition. Parallel to this classification which is used as reference (in particular for the attribution of the heads of series in the tournaments) one finds the classification " Race" (which exists since 2001 at the men, and 2006 among women) who counts the results obtained during the season. A player or a player who carries out very a good start of season can thus find themselves at the top of the Race classification, and much further with the classification reference (or technique). At the end of the season, these two classifications meet obviously.
For the classifications before 1973 to see Tennis players world numbers 1.
See also: great champions of tennis
… of yesterdaySince beginning of 20th century, which was marked by the appearance of many tournaments which exist always nowadays, of very many players and players illustrated themselves. Thus, until the beginning of the Open era in 1968, several champions marked the history of tennis. Most famous of them are undoubtedly American Bill Tilden and Australian the Rod Laver, the first having gained ten tournaments of the Large Slam, and the second having carried out two of the three Grand Slam S to date.
After the beginning of the Open era, which was marked by a professionalisation of tennis, new champions illustrated themselves. Among these exceptional players and players, one can quote the American Pete Sampras (record of victories in Large world Slam and weeks n°1), Andre Agassi (the only player of the era Open to have gained the four tournaments of the Large Slam and holder of the record of titles in Masters Series -17-), and allemande Steffi Graf, who gained 22 tournaments of the Grand Slam in her brilliant career.
… and of today
- Swiss Roger Federer, currently dominates the world circuit and holds the record of consecutive weeks in the first place which it did not leave since February 2004. At 26 years, Federer holds 12 titles of the Grand Slam and presents a very complete play on all surfaces.
Rafael Nadal Spain, which, with only blackjack years, holds the record of consecutive victories on beaten Ground (81, stopped by Roger Federer on May 18th, 2007). It already gained the Coupe Davis with the Spain and 3 tournaments of Roland Garros, in 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Novak Djokovic Serbia, currently world number 3 at twenty years, it is the spearhead of the new generation of players.
- Martina Hingis Swiss Record of precocity for the Swiss woman, who gained the first of her 5 tournaments of the Large Slam at the 16 years age. It gained 43 titles into simple. It stopped the competition in October 2002, and made a success of a come-back gaining at the beginning of 2006. It has took its retirement in 2007 after being controlled positive with cocaine.
- Serena Williams Victorious of the four tournaments of the Large Slam, Serena consecutively gains the four liftings between 2002 and 2003. It counts 28 tournaments with its prize list (into simple) including 8 titles of the Large Slam.
- Venus Williams Venus has with her prize list 6 tournaments of the Large Slam (whose 4 Wimbledon), an Olympic title in 2000, and gained 36 titles into simple.
- Lindsay Davenport Lindsay has with its prize list 52 tournaments into simple including 3 tournaments of the Large Slam (Open of Australia 2000, Wimbledon 1999 and U.S. Open 1998) and 1 Masters in 1999 like 36 titles in double including 3 titles of the Large Slam (Roland Garros 1996, US Open 1997 and Wimbledon 1999). It was also Olympic champion in 1996. She in addition was number 1 world into simple, including 4 times at the end of the season like in double.
- Amélie Mauresmo France, victorious of the Open of Australia and Wimbledon in 2006, which dominates the circuit at the end of the year 2005 and all the year 2006, it will be dispossessed of the world place of N°1 only at the end of the year. It account 24 titles into simple with its prize list, of which a title of the female masters. It also gained 1 Fed Cup, it also obtained an Olympic money medal (in 2004, final lost against Justine Henin).
- Kim Clijsters Belgium It gained a title of the Large Slam, 1 Fed Cup and knew the world place of number one simultaneously into simple and double. It counts 34 tournaments with its prize list (into simple). It has took its retirement in 2007.
- Justine Henin Belgium. Number 1 since March 2007, the young Belgian has a prize list of most complete, only Wimbledon misses indeed with its prize list in Large Slam. She gained 37 tournaments (including 7 titles in Large Slam and 1 Masters) into simple, an Olympic gold medal (in 2004), a Fed Cup (in 2001) and occupied the first place of classification WTA during 81 weeks.
- Maria Sharapova Russia, Considered as the best Russian player, it succeeded where all the other Russians failed only 17 years and a little less than two months i.e. to gain two tournaments of the Grand Slam, Wimbledon in 2004 and the US Open in 2006 and became N°1 world. She counts for the moment 15 titles into simple whose title of Masters Féminin obtained in 2004.
- Jelena Jankovic Serbia, N°3 world, old of only 22 years, which appeared with the general public in 2006 after a semi-final with US Open, after one period of large galère at the beginning of 2006 or she did not gain only one match in 10 tournaments. She counts also another semi-final with Roland-Garros and 5 titles WTA.
- Svetlana Kuznetsova Russia, n°2 world following US the Open 2007 when it reached the final, this Russian, old of only 22 years, revealed at this same US Open 2004 when, then N°9 world, it had gained the title with the general surprise. It also counts another final of Large Slam, obtained in Roland-Garros in 2006, and 9 titles WTA.
- Elena Dementieva Russia, n°10 world, old 25 years, this Russian is often placed, seldom gaining. It counts indeed only 8 titles WTA, after several years with the signal world level. It also counts an Olympic final, its first final, balanced by a defeat. After one season 2007 in half-tone, it returned at the top while being essential, at it, in Moscow, to go back to the 10th world place.
The Large SlamThe tournaments of the Grand Slam are the four major tournaments of professional calendar: Open of Australia, International of France of Roland-Garros, Tournament of Wimbledon, and US Open. These tournaments proceed over two weeks, and the players and players clash every two days. Tables masculine and female gather 128 players each one, among which 32 heads of series (determined by the technical classification), of the players resulting from the qualifications, and the invited players, who receive a wild-card. the principal difference between the tournaments of the large slam and the other tournaments of the calendar resides in the fact that the meetings dispute with best of the five sets at the men, which gives sometimes place to very long meetings.
The tournaments of the large slam gather all the categories of players, thus, the various tournaments which take place at the time of each large slam are: simple men, simple women, double men, double women, doubles mixed, junior boys and junior girls.
The American Andy Roddick holds the speed records with the service, with a ball struck to 249,4 km/h, at the time of the Coupe Davis In 2004. Roddick held already the preceding records with services of which speeds exceeded 240 km/h. Among women, it is Venus Williams which holds the speed records with the service, with a ball struck to 207,6 km/h at the time of the first turn US Open 2007 against the Hungarian woman Kira Nagy (even if Brenda Schultz-McCarthy were useful has 208km/h, unfortunately in a tournament not approved). Venus Williams is not any more the only player to have reached the bar of the 200km/h, since Anna Ivanovic was useful has 201km/h, and that at the time of the Open US of tennis 2007, Serena Williams was useful 203km/h. has.
Swedish Joachim Johansson Co-holds the record of the number of aces succeeded in a match, with 51 services gaining vis-a-vis Andre Agassi at the time of the Open of Australia 2005, on a match of the 1/8èmes gained 6/7 7/6 7/6 6/4 by Agassi. Croatian Ivo Karlović thereafter equalized it at the time of the Tournoi of Wimbledon 2005, at the time of a match of the 1st turn gained by his adversary of the day, in 5 sets this time, Daniele Bracciali, 6/7 7/6 3/6 7/6 12/10.
The longest match of the Open era is, at present, that which opposed the French Fabrice Santoro and Arnaud Clément to Roland Garros In 2004. The match lasted 6 hours and 35 minutes, with a final score of 6/4 6/3 6/7 3/6 16/14 in favor of Santoro. The match was exploited two days and the last sleeve lasted nearly three hours.
The African south Wayne Ferreira holds the record of the number of consecutive participations in the tournaments of the Grand Slam. It indeed connected 56 consecutive participations, at a rate of four per annum.
American Andre Agassi is, to date, the only player of the history of tennis to have gained the 4 tournaments of the Grand Slam on 4 different surfaces: Rebound Ace for the Open one of Australia, ground beaten for Roland Garros, grass for Wimbledon and Decoturf for the US Open one.
Rafael Nadal is since May 2007 the recordman of the consecutive victories on only one surface (beaten ground): 81, Roger Federer having put a term at this series with the Masters of Hamburg 2007 (2/6 6/2 6/0). The incredible series of Rafael Nadal had started in spring 2005. The preceding record was held by John McEnroe with 75 victories in indoor between 1983 and 1985.
For the records of Roger Federer,
See also: personal records of Roger Federer
Tennis in the worldTennis is especially practiced in Europe, America and Oceania. This is very visible at the professional level, both for the players the tournaments. Very popular sport, tennis enjoys a world notoriety, and is, at the sides of football the sport more mediatized in France.
African tennis is primarily represented by white players of South Africa (Wayne Ferreira, Amanda Coetzer, Marcos Ondruska…) or of the Zimbabwe (Byron Black, Cara Black, Kevin Ullyett…), or of the players Morocco ains (Younès El Aynaoui, Hicham Arazi, Karim Alami…). The Black Africa, victim of its poverty (lack of infrastructures, handle of privileged…), has only some episodical representatives in world signal 100 (Yahiya Doumbia, Dally Randriantefy…). The champion Afro-American Arthur Ashe had wanted to develop tennis on this continent but its only true success was to discover with the Cameroun… the French Yannick Noah!
One can make about the same report for the Asia, where there exists perhaps also a problem of culture. Only two countries rather regularly provide players in the elite: the Japan (with primarily of the players: Kimiko Dates, Have Sugiyama, Shinobu Asagoe…) and the India (Mahesh Bhupathi, Leander Paes…), undoubtedly marked by English colonization (as for the cricket). There too, one can see appearing some isolated successes, most known being the Inhabitant of Thailand Paradorn Srichaphan. Following the example Ashe for Africa, the Asian American of origin Michael Chang often has work for the promotion of his sport on the continent and it undoubtedly succeeded in influencing a rising young generation but also the progressive establishment of professional tournaments (which it often promoted while taking part in it in spite of their weak international repercussion). Perhaps today Asian tennis has beautiful days in front of him, contrary to still embryonic African tennis. A recent agreement with the Australian Federation made it possible to provide a Wild card per annum to an Asian player for the Internationaux of Australia Melbourne, accordingly of development of tennis in Asia.
Representations and mediatization of tennis
Tennis in the books and with the cinema
Tennis is not the sport most present in arts, which it is of literature or cinema. However, several films put tennis in the middle of their intrigue. Thus, the film more the great victory , left on October 20th 2004 reports victory of the British Peter Colt at his place, with Wimbledon in particular thanks to a young player, Lizzie Bradbury (Kirsten Dunst) which gives again taste with tennis to him. Tennis is also present in film of Woody Allen, Match Point left in 2005 and where the hero is a high level tennis player. Tennis has also a role of appear in many other films, such as for example the Unknown of the North-Express train , of which the main character is a winner of Wimbledon.
The Romance S which have a bond with tennis are not legion; on the other hand, of very many books on tennis appear each year. They are mainly of two kinds, in a first place of the books which report season of the professionals, with annual publication thus with the example of the series of Jean Couvercelle and Guy Barbier the year of the tennis and in addition the books which aims at a technical evolution of the player, i.e. book which aims at making it progress, by exercises to be practiced, or simply basic technical councils: taken to adopt, preparation physical, mental, etc a sample of these books is presented in the bibliography.
Tennis on televisionTennis is not the sport more mediatized in the world. It is in particular preceded by the Football which are also the most popular sport and more applied to the world. Tennis was médiatisé as of the years 1920 by the means of the radio. It is only later that tennis was introduced on television, in particular by the British chain BBC. In France, the first chain to diffuse tennis was TF1, which then yielded in 1988 the rights to the group France Television, current diffuser of the Internationaux of France of Roland-Garros.
Tennis, medicine and dopingAlthough only specific cases were located and sanctioned these last years, tennis is touched by the doping since at least the years 1950.
The first known case of doping in tennis relates to the Spanish Andres Gimeno, victorious of the British Michael Davies at the time of a meeting of Coupe Davis in 1959 and which admitted having received for two months of the injections with strong amounts of Testostérone. The first controls anti-doping were carried out at the end of the years 1980 and made it possible to confuse with the beginning of the year 1990 the Swede Mats Wilander and the Czech Karel Nováček controlled positive with cocaine, as well as the Spaniard Ignacio Truyol positive with the Stéroïde S.
Since the end of the year 1990, the intensifying of the control made it possible to confuse several players with the more high level.
The first case made public related to the Czech Petr Korda.
Argentinian the Mariano Puerta was controlled positive in 2003 with the Clenbuterol and was condemned to 9 months of suspension. Finalist with Roland Garros in 2005, it was again controlled positive, this time at a anabolic. Puerta was then condemned to suspension a eight year old (which meant the end of its career), reduced to two years in call. The role of this suspension record was to dissuade the players to consume illicit substances. However, other cases were announced since. Thus, the Bulgarian young person Karatancheva was controlled positive with the Nandrolone in 2005, whereas it was only sixteen years old. The compatriot of Puerta, Guillermo Cañas has condemned him to a two year old suspension in 2005, for use of doping products. A suspension re-examined finally with the fall (15 month), involuntary character of absorption having been established.
Tennis is famous as being a demanding discipline for the body, and particularly for the back, because it requires the intervention of many muscles, in particular with the service. Among the most frequent wounds at the tennismen, one can quote the acute épicondylite, more known under the English name of tennis elbow . It is about a Inflammation (tendinitis) of the elbow due in particular to the Vibration S of the Raquette during the striking of the ball. It was amplified by their great dimension. The manufacturers propose their new design and the supposed composite materials to reduce these harmful effects.
But tennis elbow is not the only frequent wound with tennis, of many players are made ankle sprains, or tendinitises. The majority of these wounds can be avoided thanks to a heating of quality associated with serious stretchings at the end of the part like to a good hydration.
It is as to note for the sportsmen as this Inflammation is also present in many guards of Handball.
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