A televised series (abréviée series , or familiarly television series ) is a work of Fiction Audiovisuel it made up of several episode S, built around one or several elements common, designed to be diffused with the Télévision and not with the Cinéma.
As a kind vis-a-vis the other forms of artistic expression (novel, cinema, cartoon…), the televised series form a coherent kind, with its history, its authors, its key periods… Its works, like all popular arts in their time, result from several dynamic: artistic, industrial, commercial… functioning in manner sometimes convergent, divergent or independent. The televised series, diffused by hundreds of chains throughout the world, influenced the televiewers on several generations and deeply marked to them culture, , , . From the technical point of view initially, because the images are not recadrées, are truncated or are not reduced to hold in the screen like are often the films of cinema: they are carried out for this format; but also from the narrative point of view. The series offers a regular appointment (daily, weekly or different) likely to fidéliser the public. The short duration of the episodes of the majority of the series (generally lower than one hour, even at half an hour, except for certain series like Columbo or Navarro , whose episodes last approximately an hour and half) enables them to be harmonized with the modern daily life, which is necessary since the television station is placed inside even of the hearth.
The series in the broad senseIn the broad sense, televised series are a whole of measurings televised of fiction, called “episode common S”, built around one or several elements, for example of the recurring characters. According to this definition, the series is opposed to the Téléfilm S, or dramatic, which constitute each one a unit of programming.
They are the elements common to the various episodes which build the major unity of the series and give to the televiewer the feeling that it forms a coherent whole. The unit of televised series is often due to recurring characters, but it is not always the case, as one will see it in some examples:
In the case of Columbo , it is mainly the character of the lieutenant of police force Frank Columbo, interpreted by Peter Falk, which carries out the unit of the series: it is present in all the episodes, where one systematically sees it solving a criminal case.
the unit of Urgences is not due so much to recurring characters (the majority of the characters present in the first season for summer have replaced by others) only with the place where proceeds essence of the action (the hospital Cook County, with Chicago) and about the series (the daily newspaper of the personnel of this hospital).
the anthologies are a form of televised series without recurring character; they have a unit of topic. It is the case of Beyond the reality , of which all the episodes draw from the set of themes suitable for the Science-fiction.
Certain anthologies, in order to reinforce their coherence and the attachment of the televiewer, preserve some common visual elements (narrator, object). Thus, the Fourth Dimension and Alfred Hitchcock presents are anthologies whose creators (respectively Rod Serling and Alfred Hitchcock) make an appearance with each episode, to be used as narrator. The first gathers stories approaching the topics of strange and the paranormal; the second met in scene in each episode a history of crime and seeks to create a certain suspense, with a fall as unexpected as possible. Gun is, as for it, a a little particular anthology, gathering stories putting in scene various characters who have like common point to see their life upset by a revolver with mother-of-pearl stick. There is thus a topic common to the episodes, of which the scenaristic representation is the revolver: this object is, in a direction, a recurring character.
The series in a strict senseIn a strict sense, the televised series are a fiction with episodes where each episode is narrativement independent. According to this definition, the series is opposed to the Feuilleton televised. Indeed, in the serial it is theoretically necessary to follow the entirety of the episodes, in the chronological order, to include/understand the intrigue, each episode being the continuation of the precedent. On the other hand, a series in a strict sense is a whole of stories (episodes) theoretically independent from/to each other.
Columbo , just like Mission impossible and Bowler hat and leather boots , is an example of series in a strict sense: the investigations of lieutenant Columbo limit all to the duration of an episode, and no episode, except rare exceptions, refers to a former investigation. On the other hand, according to this definition, it would be incorrect to say that Prison Station-wagon is series, because unit of its episodes forms only one and even history (that of a man which tries to make escape his/her imprisoned brother) and each one of them is the obvious result of the precedent; it is thus about a serial.
The serial creates the development of consumer loyalty, but this development of consumer loyalty is fragile, the televiewer being likely to ignore some if it misses some episodes and loses the wire of the history. Conversely, with the series in a strict sense, one does not create development of consumer loyalty, but one does not lose the televiewer either: this last can miss one or more episodes, it will be able to take again the series after several weeks of absence and nevertheless to include/understand the intrigue of the episodes which it looks at.
This definition of the televised series was the commonly accepted definition it there has a few years, but was supplanted since by the definition in the broad sense. It is considered from now on that a serial is a form of series (in the broad sense), because it is about a whole of episodes organized around common elements (to be started with recurring characters as well as the long intrigue which he puts in scene). It is thus correct to say that Prison Station-wagon is a series.
Series-serialFormerly, the fictions with episodes concerned a particular form clearly: serial or series in a strict sense. In the years 1980, Steven Bochco creates an intermediate form of televisual fiction to episodes, with series like Hill Street Blues or the Law of Los Angeles . This shape will be regained by many authors and became the principal form of the series diffused nowadays ( Urgences , Code Quantum , the Chameleon , X-Files, at the borders of reality ). In this type of fiction, which is called series-serial , of many episodes tell a complete history, but a long and slow screen which is exploited all the series adds there.
Thus, Moonlight puts in scene at each episode a new survey carried out by Maddie Hayes and David Addison, a duet of private detectives, and it is not necessary to look at the episodes in the order where they were turned to include/understand their investigations (as for any series in a strict sense). But beyond the account of these multiple investigations, the series rests on a long screen, which is the evolution of the relations between Maddie and David. For appreciating their play of the " well; I love you, me either " , it is preferable to look at the episodes in the order where they were turned (as for a serial). Moonlight is thus a series-serial.
The long screen fidélise the televiewer. This last is rewarded to follow the series as a whole because it benefits from long and rich intrigue, it can regularly re-examine characters whom it appreciates, to follow the evolution of the universe put in scene. At the same time, an episode alone can replace a Téléfilm court of Série B, i.e. each episode can, in theory, being seen in an independent way and to allow no matter whom to take the series in the course of road.
There can be several stories in parallel in the long screen. When one of these stories occupies only part of the season, it will be said that it is about a arc. The modern series-serials typically develop the arcs on two to ten episodes, what some compare to the writing of a long episode cut out in several pieces . The descent into Hell of Lex Luthor in seasons 4 and 5 of Smallville is an example of long screen.
The televiewer of the series-serial does not have the impression to be captive because it can still give up the series constantly (or between two arcs) after having benefitted from the episodes and the past arcs. And if the televiewer misses some episodes, it does not lose the wire completely, since the long screen develops slowly and on several episodes. For all these reasons, with the form of the series-serial, the televised series take more and more place on our screens.
Today, it is the definition in the broad sense of televised series which is used, as well in the language running as in the specialists; one will be able to indicate a serial or a series-serial by the generic term series . The existence of the series-serial as an intermediate kind gives birth to from the passionate debates on the question: are such televised series a serial? , of which it is difficult to decide between the protagonists.
Other similar works
- Certains televisual programs uses cutting with episodes to present documentary works and often takes the name of documentary series , although they cannot theoretically be qualified televised series. For example: Far from Hollywood , the Turn of the Pacific ( Full Circle with Michael Palin , 1995).
Certaines works with episodes was produced in the style of the televised series, but was published directly on the market of the video. This concept is found especially in the field of the Animé S (they are OAV with episodes), which is sometimes compared to televised series without them not being to it stricto-sensus.
Enfin we mention here the serial which is a cinematographic work in serial (called sometimes chapters) dedicated to the exit into the room. This kind is hardly any more produced since the years 1940, is itself resulting from the serialized story kind and corresponds to the ancestor of the television serial. Continuity between the episodes of the serial is traditionally very strong, with an end at fort suspense ( cliffhanger ) with each épisode.
History of the televised seriesAlthough many countries produced series, of which some of great quality, the history of the series televised was dominated mainly by three countries: the United States, the United Kingdom and France, as well in quantity as in the capacity as Ted Willis on the BBC. It is only in September 1955 that ITV starts to emit, in the shape of fifteen local companies of diffusion and production, among which Associated Rediffusion (London and suburbs in week), ATV (London the weekend), Granada TV (England north-western in week), and others, in particular for the Scotland and the Wales.
This profusion of concurrent independent productions pushes the BBC to develop a great creativity in its fictions, and to found a freedom of tone suprenante for a public channel. Firm ITC, of Lew Rank, which will sell in general in parallel on the US market, produced for diffusions on ITV, to start with Robin of Wood (of Ralph Smart, 1955), then Colonel March (1957). Thereafter, they are these two principal kinds: series historical and police, which will be produced for British television ( Guillaume Tell in 1958 on ITV, Ivanhoé in 1958 on BBC, Ici Interpol in 1959 on ITV, Sir Francis Drake, the corsair of the queen in 1961 on ITV, etc). In 1959, ITV produced the invisible Man of Ralph Smart and opens the door with the kinds of the Science-fiction and the Fantastique. This period of the years 1950 and the beginning of the year 1960 was called the Golden age of British television.
BBC Two starts in April 1964, with the production KIS Me kate . As from the years 1960, the series of adventure rarefy but the productions of fantastic science fiction/develop, mainly by works of Gerry Anderson, as well as the series Doctor Who . Espionage makes to him also the great strides with major series like Destination danger (of Ralph Smart, 1960), Bowler hat and leather boots (1961), but also the Man with the bag (of Denis Spooner, 1967).
One starts to consider diffusions color, but the standards are not decided yet in Europe. Finally, between the system American NTSC, the SECAM in France and the STAKE in Germany, it is the STAKE which east chooses, and the diffusion color begins in December 1967. Three major companies ITV are created in 1968. Associated Rediffusion amalgamates with ABC TV (Associated British picture Corporation) to form Thames Television , in order to serve London and its suburbs in week. It is this group which will produce Benny Hill . LWT (London Weekend Television) is also created the same year for the diffusions of the weekend. At the same time Yorkshire Television starts (YTV).
For this period, series of kind adventurer-dispenser of justice develop, such the Saint (1962, ITV) or Amicalement yours… (1971, ITV). It is also the birth of the hybrid series fantastic/espionage: the Champions (1968, ITC), as well as the allegorical masterpiece the Prisoner (of Patrick McGoohan, ITV).
The kinds adventurer-dispenser of justice and espionage decline with the beginning of the year 1970 with Poigne of iron and seduction (of Gerry Anderson, 1972, on ITV). In same time, the audience balances between the BBC and ITV. A first cabled chain begins in 1972 in Greenwich, serving 9000 hearths. In 1982 appears the commercial chain Chanel 4.
More modern series appear, concerned with the procedural kind, and the adaptation of the British police literary inheritance: Hercule Poirot of Agatha Christie ( Hercule Poirot , 1989, LWT), Campion of Margery Allingham ( Campion , 1989, BBC), Sherlock Holmes of Conan Doyle ( Adventures of Sherlock Holmes , 1984, Granada TV), Inspector Morse of Hake Dexter ( Inspector Morse , 1987, ITV), Brother Cadfael of Ellis Peters (kind of police officer-medieval - Cadfael , 1994, ITV).
Since the appearance of network ITV competition between the chains unceasingly stimulated British creation, contrary to what occurred to France after privatization from TF1. The quality of the British televisual production is universally recognized, not only in the field of the fiction, but also in that of dramatic and the documentary one.
The first French series they also drew their inspiration in the historical culture ( Red Maison , Thierry the Sling ). They were often inspired by serialized stories: Rocambole , Vidocq , Jacquou Crunching it and of course Belphégor , to only quote most known. French television is also, right from the start, fond of delicacies of detective series: the Five Last Minutes , Investigations of the Police chief Maigret , Police chief Mill , Brigades of the Tiger (this last series mixing police intrigues and historical culture).
Until the beginning of the Years 1980, French television was a state monopoly and underwent extremely strong constraints (self-censorship…), which did not prevent it from producing sometimes series iconoclasts like Shadoks , created in 1968. According to certain observers, the end of the monopoly compromised the quality of the French productions. Indeed, rare are the contemporary French series accommodated favorably by criticism.
Thus, in the Years 1990, television Frenchwomen sees, with AB Production, the arrival many Sitcom S such as Salut Muscular the , First Kisses or Helene and the boys who undergo the lightnings of criticism but receive the favors of the young public. So certain French series currently diffused are great successes in terms of TV rating ( Plus beautiful the life is followed daily by 5 million televiewers on average), none of them was not success of regard comparable with that their American cousins. French series like Research department or the Hospital rest on intrigues inspired of the American series with success, but are compared negatively with their models (respectively the Experts and Grey' S Anatomy ) and did not have the discounted audience.
One can note two great constants in the contemporary French series: importance of the police fictions ( Navarro , Julie Lescaut , Women of law …) and that of the fictions speaking in praise of solidarity ( Instit , more beautiful the life …).
A kind in evolutionThe creativity of the authors of series being obviously unbounded, typology by format or kind can be done only a posteriori the history, upon reading of the televised series and the analysis of various works. For several years, one has noted a considerable evolution in the field of the series, in particular of the American series.
Some, as 24 hours stopwatch revolutionize the kind by introducing a concept of real-time: each minute which occurs in the serial corresponds in theory to one minute in reality. There are thus no cuts or of “flashbacks”. Series were inspired some thereafter, like The Shield .
If the preferred advertizing target of the series were formerly the “housewife of less than 50 years”, it today is varied much. There exist from now on series for teenagers or young adult ( Buffy against the vampires , Charmed , Smallville , or already in the years 1980: 21 Jump Street ), of the series for adults, sometimes very raw ( Sex and the City , Nip/Tuck , The Shield ), and of the more or less family series ( Seven at the house , Friends , Stargate SG-1 , Lost, the missings ).
A series like Nip/Tuck , which approaches without turning of the subjects taboos like the sex or drug and puts in scene with realism and crudeness of the operations of cosmetic surgery, shows with which point the freedom of tone developed in the kind.
The series are followed by an increasing number of televiewers: thus, the series the Experts drains approximately 30 million spectators to each episode in the United States.
Attracted by these audiences records and the quality of these series, more and more of famous actors of the big screen agree to appear there in secondary roles (Michelle Rodriguez and Dominic Monaghan in Lost, the missings , Glenn Close, then Forest Whitaker in The Shield ). Realizers of great fame propose to carry out some episodes of them (Quentin Tarantino in particular turned an episode of Urgences and an episode of the Experts ).
Evolution of the mode of diffusionDuring years, the diffusion of the series was confined more on television. Cassettes VHS, then DVD with the beginning of the year 2000, to arrive at diffusion Internet running 2005 at, inter alia, Canalplay and TF1. This diffusion can be done by Téléchargement or Streaming. This change of mode of consumption made, especially for the serials, that the spectator is not obliged any more to wait, for example, one week before having the continuation. The arrival of the free diffusion by Internet, launched by TF1 on the serial the Master of the Zodiac, is highly likely to support the passion for this télévisuel.< kind! -- that which wrote this passage (drawn from the article Feuilleton televised) can explain why one does not need to wait week? Are the episodes published on the site before their tele diffusion??? -->
CriticismsIn France, they were disparaged a long time by the critiques, , , which considered them at the same time as a sub-genus because it perceived them (rightly at the origin) like Divertissement ( entertainment ), concept often accompanied in France of a pejorative connotation, and like a form of invading Americanism. Criticisms of the time compared all the Anglo-Saxon series to series américaines and all the American series compared to the daytime soaps , in particular with Dallas , serial with success which one reproached for praising the American lifestyle in what it has of worse, with a history which could have been told in much less episodes. Dallas was regarded then as the prototype at the same time of the televised series and the poor serial.
The situation changed when the diffusion in premium time of a series-serial of quality took place on a hertzian large chain, in fact Urgences on France 2 --> -->. The kind was finally recognized like an artistic form with whole share and gave place has articles and serious analyzes in the not specialized press. Criticisms of televised series could be recognized and to have the word without being put in retreat. The specialized works then could be published without having to be justified.
- Arc (in English, story arc ): Certain series (and not of the serials) present a group of episodes (sometimes, a whole season) to see preferably in the order, because they constitute a complete history together. Such a history is called “arc”. For example, the arc of the fifth season of Buffy against the vampires is built around the origin of Dawn, the little sister of Buffy. Each episode reveals a brief reply. The arc extends here over all the season and is revealed entirely in the final episode.
Anthology : Series without recurring character, except a possible narrator, whose each episode, built around a topic, constitutes a complete history. It is the case of Alfred Hitchcock presents ( Alfred Hitchcock present ), of the Contes of the Crypt and the Fourth Dimension ( The Twilight Zone ), or more recently Masters off Horror .
Bible : Document joining together the whole of information concerning the characters of a series (fictitious biographies, psychological profiles, vestimentary practices, possible evolutions of the protagonists, etc). The bible is used to consign all this information in writing so that each scenario writer can write episodes which are in agreement with the fictitious universe where the history evolves/moves, in the spirit of the series, and without error of continuity.
Bottle Show (English term, translation: episode bottle ): Episode of a series being held in only one decoration (example: the episode the interior Voyage of season 7 of Stargate SG-1 ).
Cliffhanger (English term). Open end of an episode of a series, aiming at creating a fort suspense. One speaks about cliffhanger when an episode finishes right in the middle of an action essential with the outcome, leaving the character confronted with a thorny problem, even with a perilous situation, which finds its resolution only in one posterior episode; for example, a character is suspended ( hanged ) on the edge of a cliff ( cliff ), from where the term. Such an end is supposed to give desire to the televiewer for looking at the following episode, would be this only to know if the hero will leave himself this difficult situation. Certain series exploit this process in a systematic way: in the first season of the series Alias , all the episodes finish in cliffhanger .
Clip-show : to see Episode-clip low.
Cross-country race-over (English term, translation: crossing ): The fact that characters of a series intervene in another series, the time of one (or of several) episode (S). For example, in the episode Swing-low of combat of the series Ale McBeal , the cabinet calls upon lawyers of The Practice: Bobby Donnell & Associated in order to defend one their marked customers of murder. In the same way, many are the episodes cross-country race-over which make meet the heroes of the series the Experts , the Experts: Miami and Experts: Manhattan . To note that in interpretations of the series Lost , the term cross-country race-over indicates connections which the characters had between them before their meeting on the island (and thus a priori before they know each other).
Unit Show (English term, translation: series-together ): Series whose heroes are a group of characters and not a character alone or a duet ( Urgences , Beverly Hills , Friends , Desperate Housewives , Stargate SG-1 , Lost, the missings …).
Episode : Narrative segment of televised series, theoretically constituting with him only a unit of programming. A television channel which bought or which produces a series will diffuse the various episodes with regular intervals of them (an episode per day, an episode per week, two episodes per week…), except for certain series like Julie Lescaut , whose rate/rhythm of diffusion is much more random. All the episodes of a given series must have one equivalent duration (two minutes for Shadoks , 21 minutes for Friends , 48 minutes for the Prisoner , 75 to 90 minutes for Columbo …). Even if, in theory, an episode constitutes with him only a unit of programming, it is increasingly frequent on the French chains to diffuse after two, even three episodes of the same series.
Episode-clip ( Clip Show ): Episode made up in its majority of extracts of old episodes. For example, in an episode of season 9 of Friends entitled That which passed Christmas to Tulsa , one of the characters takes stock of his relation with his wife, which implies Flashback S made up of extracts of several preceding episodes. The episode-clips often intervene at the end of the season because of a lack of time, appropriations or ideas. The series Stargate SG-1 became famous for its systematic use of episode-clips for the last but one episode of each season, thus making it possible to defer most of the budget and resources of this episode on the last of the season, so that this one profits from better special effects.
Serial : Televised series whose episodes are to be seen in the chronological order, each one of them being the continuation of the precedent. Belphégor or the Phantom of Louvre , Dallas , or more recently Lost and Prison Station-wagon are examples of serial.
Formulated show (term English, translation: series-formula ): Series whose episodes are built around a quasi immutable narrative diagram ( Mission: Impossible , Columbo , New York District ).
Gimmick (male name, francized English term): Process visual or scenaristic present in each episode of a series (the abrupt entry of Kramer in the apartment of Seinfeld , the scene of tape recorder in Mission: Impossible or briefing with the document which autodétruit in Inspector Gadget ) or fetish object of a character allowing to identify it immediately (the Peugeot 403 and the impermeable one of Columbo, the cigarettes Morley of the “smoker” in X-Files ).
Guest star (English term, translation: guest high-speed motorboat ): Actor celebrates who interprets an occasional role in one or more episodes of a series. It happens that the presence of guest star does not aim that to dope the audience.
Minisérie (also called Télésuite ): Serial of short duration and few episodes, as for example the Birds hide to die , Shogun … the term minisery being an Anglicism, some prefers the term télésuite to him. When they are French serials, one will adopt more the term saga like People of Mogador or the Saga of the summer whose the Wind of the harvests was the first example in 1988 and followed each summer since this year with titles like Orages of summer or more recently Zodiaque .
Novela : to see Telenovela low.
Pilote : One duration variable episode, being used to set up the context and the characters of a series. Generally diffused in preview, it allows the production, within sight of the results of audience, to decide viability or non-viability of the series. It is generally about the first episode of a series, but it is not an absolute rule: thus, the first episode of Columbo , Accused of murder , was conceived like a Téléfilm among others, it was then not question of making a series of it. The success surprised of this telefilm led the producers to turn a second episode, considered as controls it ( Rançon for a dead man ), of which success convinced them to turn of other episodes.
Premium time serial : Weekly serial of evening of the anglophone countries. Most known in France are Dallas , West coast , Dynastie , Melrose Place , Mystères in Twin Peaks , Falcon Crest … They often last several years, but their weekly rate/rhythm hardly makes them exceed three hundred episodes, for longest of them (longest being Peyton Place , with 514 episodes, but it was twice-weekly).
Saga of the summer : French or foreign television serial diffused for the summer period with some exceptions, of few episodes (4 to 10 in general), having a particular screen, turning around a secrecy of family, a clash of interests or a police enigma. The precursor of this particular style is Jean Sagols who carries out in 1988 the Wind of the harvests .
Saga salt : Short continuation of flashback S projected with the whole beginning of an episode, consisted of extracts of the preceding episodes, recalling the broad outlines of the history since the commencement of the series. It can be followed or not second summary of the events of the preceding episodes which will directly affect the diffused episode. This process is very current in the serials ( Desperate Housewives , Prison Station-wagon …).
Season ( Season ): Term indicating a whole of episodes of a series (generally 10 to 30 episodes, generally approximately 20) which were filmed during the same period of turning and which are diffused the ones following the others, in the space of a few months. The system of the seasons does not exist in all the countries: with the Brazil for example, turnings are permanent and there is no interruption of diffusion; each new serial whose diffusion finishes is immediately replaced with the antenna by a new new serial.
Sentai : Type of series originating in the Japan whose heroes fight forces of the evil by covering electronic armours and by using vehicles being able to compose a gigantic robot. Example: Bioman , Power Rangers .
Series, or televised series : Audio-visual work of fiction made up of several episodes, built around elements common (for example, of the characters or the recurrent themes), intended to be diffused successively on television and not with the cinema. In a strict sense, the " term; série" indicate only the fictions whose each episode tells a complete and comprehensible history of itself ( Bowler hat and leather boots , Columbo , Alfred Hitchcock presents …), and is opposed to " serial ". In the broad sense (and commonly accepted today), the term indicates any type of audio-visual fiction to episodes, including the serials or the series-serials (see this word).
derived Series ( Spin-off ): Series based on a supporting character of a preceding series or on a similar concept, seeking to keep a more or less thin coherence enters the two series. Examples of derived series: Star Trek → Star Trek: The new generation ; Hercules → Xena, warlike the ; Buffy against the vampires → Angel ; Hello Muscular the → First kisses → Helene and the boys → Holidays of the love ; Hello Muscular the → Cruising foll' love ; Stargate SG-1 → Stargate Atlantis , Friends → Joey ; Beverly Hills → Melrose Places …
Series-serial : Intermediate type of fiction enters the serial and the televised series in a strict sense, calling upon various modes of narration. A series-serial for example will put in scene a history has, which includes the whole of its episodes (evolution of the relations between David and Maddie in Moonlight or difficult redemption of Andy Sipowicz in New York Police Blues ), and will put in scene in parallel of the stories B, C, D, etc, which find their outcome at the end of only some episodes, as well as stories A', B', It, Of, etc, which do not exceed the framework of an episode. When a history is spread out over several episodes of sharp (but not over the whole of the series-serial), d'" is spoken; arc" or of " story arc" (see this word).
Sitcom (female name, francized English term): Contraction of English Situation COMedy , or situation comedy. It is a humorous series with few decorations, putting in scene the members of a family, a group of friends or of colleagues. The duration of its episodes is lower than 30 minutes. One often regards Friends as the American sitcom par excellence, but one can also quote Will & Grace or Frasier .
Soap operated (or soap ): Daily serial of afternoon of the anglophone countries. Most known in France Fires of the love , Amour, glory are and beauty , Santa Barbara … They lasts sometimes several decades and can reach several thousands of episodes.
Stand-alone (English term, translation: which holds all-only ): Episode of televised series which are sufficed for itself, i.e. no knowledge of the imaginary world put in scene is necessary to its comprehension. One says also loner (English, translation: insulated ). For example, in X-Files , the stand-alone are the episodes which do not refer to the governmental plot into which Mulder and Scully throughout the series inquire; the intrigue of these episodes can be included/understood by the spectator who did not see any episode on the plot.
Story arc : to see Arc higher.
Telenovela (or novela ): daily serial of evening of the Spanish-speaking country S and Lusophone S. most known in France is the telenovelas Brésil iennes. Their intermediate duration is of seven or eight month, is approximately two hundred episodes.
Télésuite : to see Minisérie higher.
- Chronology of French television
- Cartoon televised
- Television programs
- Television serial
- French-speaking Magazines:
- Generic (S)
- Stop on series
- Generation Series
- Series max
- Series TV
- Saga , novel of Tonino Benacquista
- Universe divided in the televised series
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