The Tadjikistan (Тоикистон) is a country of Central Asia. It has borders with the Afghanistan, the China, the Kirghizstan and the Ouzbékistan. It is the only State resulting from old the Russian Turkestan not to speak a Turkish language, but an Iranian language; namely: the Inhabitant of Tajik.
See also: History of Tadjikistan
The first official structure of the inhabitants of Tajik was the empire of the Samanides (875-999) and had for the capital the town of Bukhara. The founder of the empire was Ismoïl Somoni, from where the name of the empire as well as the national currency: the Somoni.
Russian colonizationThe north of Tadjikistan, around the town of Khodjent (in the past Léninabad) was colonized by the Russians since 1868. In 1876, Tadjikistan was placed under Russian protectorate, part of the emirate of Bukhara. While the Soviet mode was proclaimed in north in 1917, the south was truly conquered only in 1920 and remained much less developed for this reason.
Soviet TadjikistanThe republic of Tadjikistan is created in 1924 with the statute of Soviet socialist republic autonomous included in the Ouzbékistan, it did not become Soviet socialist republic with whole share in 1929. The big cities Samarkand and Bukhara, populated mainly Inhabitants of Tajik were left in Ouzbékistan.
Independent TadjikistanFollowing riots with Douchanbe, Tadjikistan proclaims its sovereignty on August 24th, 1990. In September, Rakhmon Nabiev, chief of the PC inhabitant of Tajik, elected President of the Parliament, replace Mr. Aslanov, marked to have suspended the activities of the PC (transformed into " Socialiste" party;). The state of emergency is décrêté, but Nabiev resigns in front of the democratic opposition. September 9th, 1991, independence is proclaimed. In 1992, the confrontations between procommunists and islamist are accentuated and degenerate into civil war in the south causing the sending of Russian reinforcements of troops. The fixings between Russian and rebellious frontier guards are numerous during the following years. The reform of the institutions is adopted by referendum in 1999.
See also: Political of Tadjikistan
The Parlement consists of two rooms:
- the Lower House, called Majilisi Namoyandagon
- the Upper House, called Majlisi Oli
See also: Subdivisions of Tadjikistan
Tadjikistan is divided into three provinces ( viloyat , plural viloyatho ) and an autonomous province ( viloyati mukhtor ):
Province of Sughd (Khujand)
- Nohiyahoi tobei Jumhurii (in the past Karategin, Kofarnihon)
- Province of Khatlon (Qurghonteppa)
- autonomous Province of the Gorno-Badakhshan (Khorugh)
The area containing the capital Douchanbé does not have the administrative statute of province.
Each province is divided into districts, themselves subdivided in jamoats , then in villages.
See also: Geography of Tadjikistan
Tadjikistan is a landlocked country without access to the sea, and is in surface the smallest country of the Central Asia. 93 % of the territory inhabitant of Tajik consists of mountains and more half of the territory is at more than 3000 m above the sea level.
The climate of Tadjikistan is continental with fluctuations of the seasonal temperature important. In January, the temperature fluctuates on average of +2°C with -2 °C in the valleys of south-west and north and goes down until -20°C in the Pamir. The raised absolute minimum is of -63°C in Pamir (Boulounkoul) and the maximum is of 48°C with Pyandj-Bas.
See also: Economy of Tadjikistan
Tadjikistan was already the poorest country of the old Soviet Union (the USSR) and following the civil war of 1992-1997 it was even one of the poorest countries in the world. The sources of revenue, related to the export of cotton and aluminum, are precarious and make the economy vulnerable to the market prices. In 2000, the international assistance remained essential to support the programs of “rehabilitation”, of which the goal is to reinstate war veterans of the civil war in the company. The international assistance was also necessary to limit the fall of the production of food, consequence one second year of dryness. But in August 2001, the Red Cross announced the beginning of a famine with Tadjikistan, and called with an international assistance.
The economy of Tadjikistan improved considerably after the end of the civil war, according to the the World Bank, the GDP increased on average 9,6 % over the period of 2000-2004, which made it possible Tadjikistan to improve its economic position compared to other countries of Central Asia like the Turkménistan and Ouzbékistan, countries rich in hydrocarbons whose economies seem to be in regression since.
See also: Demography of Tadjikistan
- Air transport: cf Tajikistan Airlines.
See also: Culture of Tadjikistan
The official language of Tadjikistan is the Tadjik, of the family of the Indo-European Langues, the group of the Iranian Langues.
Population: 7.320.815 inhabitants (January 2006 estimates). 0-14 years: 40,4%; 15-64 years: 54,9%; + 65 years: 4,7%
Surface: 143.100 km ²
Density: 51 hab./km²
Land borders: 3.651 km (Afghanistan 1.206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Ouzbékistan 1.161 km)
Littoral: 0 km
Ends of altitude: 300 m > 7.495 m
Life expectancy: 64,94 years (in 2006)
Life expectancy of the men: 61,24 years (in 2002)
Life expectancy of the women: 67,46 years (in 2002)
Growth rate the pop one: 2,19% (in 2006)
Birth rate: 32,65 ‰ (in 2006)
Death rate: 8,25 ‰ (in 2006)
infantile Death rate: 106,49 ‰ (in 2006)
Fertility rate: 4,00 children/woman (in 2006)
Rate of migration: -3,27 ‰ (in 2002)
Independence: September 9th 1991
Telephone lines: 242,100 (in 2003)
Cellphones: 47,600 (in 2003)
Radios: 1,291 million (in 1991)
Television stations: 820.000 (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 5.000 (in 2002)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 4 (in 2002)
Roads: 29.900 km: 21.400 km paved (including packed stones) - 8.500 km ground (in 1990)
Railways: 482 km (2001)
inland Waterways: 0 km
Many airports: 53 (in 2001)
Tadjikistan has as codes:
- UT, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- EY, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft
- TJ, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- Somoni.com - directory of the sites inhabitants of Tajik
- Card on Tadjikistan, with charts and statistical
- Wikipédia in inhabitant of Tajik
Beats-smg: Tadžikistans Be-X-old: Таджыкістан Simple: Tajikistan Zh-min-nan: Tajikistan
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