TF1 (acronym of French Television 1 ) is the oldest first and Television channel French general practitioner .
History of the chainSingle television channel in France during 28 years, the first chain often changed denomination during its long story: Radio-postal and telecommunications authorities Vision pre-war period, Paris-Television during the German occupation, French Television since 1944, RDF French Television in 1945, rtf Television in 1949, first chain of the rtf (following the creation of the second channel in 1963), first chain of ORTF in 1964 and finally TF1 with the bursting of the Office in 1975, privatized in 1987.
Radio-postal and telecommunications authorities VisionThe first French television channel is born the February 13rd 1935, date of the official unveiling of the Télévision in France which emits in 60 lines of 20:15 to 20:30 a conference of the actress Béatrice Bretty since a studio of Radio-postal and telecommunications authorities Vision with 103 rue de Grenelle with Paris. The emission can be collected to 100 km around Paris. November 10th, Georges Mandel, Minister for postal and telecommunications authorities, inaugurates the first emission in 180 lines since the transmitter of the Eiffel Tower. The 18, Susy Wincker, first announcer since June, carries out a demonstration for the press of 17:30 to 19:30.
The emissions become regular starting from January 4th 1937 of 11:00 to 11:30 and 20:00 to 20:30 in week and 17:30 to 19:30 Sunday. In July 1938, a decree defines for three years the standard in 455 lines VHF (whereas three standards are used for the experiments: 441 lines for Gramont, 450 lines for the Company of the meters and 455 for Thomson). In 1939, one counts only 200 to 300 individual receivers of television, which one also looks in some rare public places. With the entry in war of the France the same year, the emissions cease and the transmitter of the Eiffel Tower is sabotaged.
Fernsehsender Paris (Paris-Television)Following an agreement signed in 1942 between the company of the meters and the German firm Telefunken, the station Fernsehsender Paris (Paris-Television) is created on May 7th 1943 diffusing in 441 lines (standard German) since the Eiffel Tower. This chain, inaugurated on September 29th 1943, is directed by German Kurt Hinzmann and emits in German and French four days out of seven of 10:00 at midday, three days of 15:00 at 17:00 and every evening of 20:30 to 22:00, diffusing varieties and Théâtre bound for the hospitals and resident German with Paris (approximately 1 000 receivers of which a hundred for the French televiewers). The chain settles with the 13-15 Rue Cognacq-Jay with Paris in an old cabaret and an old boarding house bought in 1942 by the French administration. August 16th 1944, Fernsehsender Paris (Paris-Television) cease to emit.
The French Television of the RDF then of the rtfThe emissions in 441 lines VHF begin again since the televised studios of the Rue Cognacq-Jay in October 1944. December 17th 1946, television, maintaining within the French Broadcasting (RDF), diffuses its first bulletin of Météorologie and takes again regular programming (twelve hours per week) in October 1947. The first event retransmis is the arrival of the Tour de France on July 25th 1948, with accompanying notes on line since the Parc of the Princes by Jacques Sallebert. November 20th, the Minister for information, François Mitterrand, fixes by decree the standard of the French network at 819 lines VHF.
February 4th 1949, French Broadcasting (RDF) becomes the French Broadcasting-television (rtf) and the first announcer, Jacqueline Joubert, recruited by contest, appears on the screens. The first Tv news is diffused on June 29th under the direction of Pierre Sabbagh which is also its originator. The royalty on the television receivers is founded by the law of July 30th. Starting from the re-entry 1949, television will offer a series of big firsts: the first serial intended for a young public ( Discoveries of télévisius ) in October, the daily tv news on October 2nd, then twice-daily in November, the first religious emissions of Sunday morning on October 9th, on December 24th, the midnight mass retransmise on line of Notre-Dame de Paris, the first childish emission with the Club of Thursday on January 26th 1950, the first play diffused on television on line of the Comédie-Française on February 24th with Play of the love and the chance realized by Claude Barma, and finally the first retransmission of the military procession of the July 14th on line Fields-Elysées. December 15th 1949, Catherine Langeais becomes the third announcer of television, recruited to present the new emissions in 819 lines, while those in 441 lines (envisaged to last until in 1958) continue to be presented by Jacqueline Joubert and Arlette Accart.
In July 1952, the first emission international of television is organized by the rtf and the BBC, which succeeded in regulating the problem of conversion of the definitions (405 lines in Great Britain, 441 and 819 lines in France). July 17th, 1952, whereas since 1949 the transmitter 441 lines was limited to films, kinescopes (filmed emissions) and the direct ones of plate, the same programs can from now on be seen simultaneously by all the French televiewers thanks to the “converter of standard” (a camera 441 lines taking again the image of a monitor 819 lines with specific cathode tube), in particular the large direct sportsmen. But this especially will allow the retransmission on line Abbaye of Westminster of the crowning of sovereign the British Elisabeth II, genuine release of the passion of the French for television. This June 2nd 1953, any Paris is in front of the few screens private or public or in front of the windows of the merchants of television stations to see here what occurs at the same time to London. December 31st, the National Assembly vote a five years development plan for television. Whereas France counts only 3 794 television stations in 1950, 1 % of the French households are equipped in television in 1954. The tv news is fixed at 8 p.m. January 1954 and on June 13rd, the 24 hours of Mans are retransmises for the first time on television. The first countryside televised for the legislative elections is held from December 20th to 30th 1955. January 3rd 1956 mark premature end of the exploitation in 441 lines: the transmitter, of an old technology, not having been able to support the long evenings of election, is victim of a fire. The 441 lines having to stop initially in 1958, its expensive rebuilding is abandoned with the profit of a compensation for the televiewers to allow them the purchase of an item 819 lines. In April and May 1956, the president of the Council Guy Mollet receives the television cameras for the first time at Matignon during a maintenance led by Pierre Sabbagh. March 26th 1961, the white square appears on television.
The first chainFollowing the creation of a second channel of television by rtf on December 21st 1963, the old single chain becomes simply the first chain (while the second channel will seek to allure televiewers so that they are equipped in compatible receivers and antennas for its new network UHF, while diffusing on a new standard color since 1967).
In 1965, the presidential election is the subject of a televised campaign during which each candidate is entitled to two hours of antenna, followed the one night on December 5th whole the direct ones and comments on the results of the first turn.
The October 1968, the first chain opens its screens with the Publicité " of marque". In the night of the July 21st 1969, million French televiewers attends on line the first steps of Neil Armstrong on the the Moon, commented on by Jean-Pierre Chapel.
Television touches now an immense public: from 6,1% of the households equipped in television station in 1957, one passed to 13,1 % in 1960, 51,7 % in 1966 after the creation of the second channel, to reach 70,4 % in 1970. The law of July 3rd 1972, amending of ORTF creates two distinct television channels and puts a ceiling to the advertizing resources with 25 %.
Creation of TF1The National company of French television Télévison 1 , shortened in TF1 , is born on July 8th 1974, when the Prime Minister Jacques Chirac presents the bill of reform of the audio-visual one. By the law of August 7th 1974, the Office of broadcasting French television (ORTF) is divided into seven autonomous organizations including three national companies of programs: French Television 1 (TF1), Antenna 2 (A2), France Areas 3 (FR3), the French company of production (SFP), Remote transmission of France (TDF), Radio France, and the National institute of audio-visual the (INA). The state monopoly is maintained. Each company is placed under the supervision of the Prime Minister. The law will be application the January 6th 1975, when the first chain changes preparing and of name to become TF1.
TF1 owes its name with UER. When it east is a question of finding a name with the old first chain of ORTF, Jean-Louis Guillaud, his managing director in 1975, remembered that the UER named the three French public channels: French television 1, French Television 2 and French Television 3. It hastened to make endorse this denomination, forcing its two competitors to seek other denominations. This name had the advantage for the chain of making it pass for French Television.
December 20th 1975 in opening of the newspaper, Jean-Claude Bourret announces the passage of TF1 to the color which takes effect on January 1st 1976 with the passage on the network UHF 625 lines and the diffusion of its first emissions color, that is to say twelve years after Antenne 2 (in 1967). Its started color application the January 6th 1975 will be completed tardily only in 1983 with the stop of the emissions in 819 lines VHF black and white. During this interval, TF1 was also taken again color by FR3 (already colorized) since September 1st 1975 at midday and the afternoon until the starting of its own emissions to 18:00. As of 1983, its audience the place behind Antenna 2 both for the programmes of entertainment information. July 14th 1983, Herve Bourges is named president of TF1 by the High ranking authority of the audio-visual communication (HACA) with for mission of rectifying the situation of the chain. It partly makes a success of its mission by putting the duet Yves Mourousi - Marie-Laure Augry at the orders of the 13 hour old newspaper, Marie-France Cubadda or Bruno Masure at the 20 hours and by installing each Friday a great emission of popular entertainment of Patrick Sabatier ( Porte Happiness , Play of the truth ), also attracting Patrick Sebastien or Stephan Collaro. Two emblematic emissions will make the best audiences of the chain: Seven out of seven , the Sunday political confessional of Anne Sinclair and Right of reply the emission of debate polemizes of Michel Polac.
The privatization of TF1In June 1986, Jacques Chirac, again Prime Minister within the framework of the first Cohabitation, proposes the Privatization of one of the three public channels of television. After choosehaving initially chosen FR3, choice made impossible because of the regional structure of the chain, then on Antenna 2 which was, at the time, the first chain in term of audience and image, the government chooses finally first public channel TF1, judged " ringarde" , but in rectification since the arrival of Herve Bourges. The law of September 30th, 1986 authorizes the transfer by the State of the public channel by operating a transfer of 50% of its capital to purchasers chosen after a procedure of call to the candidatures, 10% with paid chain and the 40% remainders in the form of a public call to the saving.
The National Commission of the communication and freedoms (CNCL), which succeeded the HACA, thus launches in September 1986 a call for candidate for the resumption of the first chain which answer the group Fininvest of Silvio Berlusconi, the group of BTP Bouygues of Francis Bouygues, the press group Filipacchi, the press baron Robert Harrowing, the press group Hachette, the British press baron Robert Maxwell, and the businessman Bernard Tapie. Harrowing Robert and Silvio Berlusconi being combined to take again the Five, Filipacchi having given up, it does not remain any more in April 1987 but two candidates with the recovery: on a side the Hatchet group carried out by Jean-Luc Lagardere which wishes to be established in television, but whose partner, Havas, left it in February; other, a consortium carried out by the Bouygues group associated with Pergamon Media Trust Peak, GMF, the Fnac, the world editions, the General society, Maxwell Media, the group Bernard Tapie, Financial Faltas, Indosuez and the Crédit Lyonnais. Hearings of the two transferees groups by CNCL are diffused on line on TF1, and each one of them exposes to the Members of the Commission the schedule of conditions which they intend to implement to answer the " better saying cultural " preached by the Minister of Transport, François Léotard about this privatization. Involved by the very media Bernard Tapie and better surrounded than Hatchet, the consortium carried out by Francis Bouygues allures the CNCL which authorizes the April 6th this last to take a participation in height of 50 % in the capital of the chain against a check of 3 frank billion given on April 16th, and allots on April 15th to him a one ten years duration concession on the hertzian domestic network. 50 % remaining of the capital are broken up into 7.636.000 actions (that is to say 36,40% of the capital) yielded by public offering of sale out of frank Stock Exchange in July 1987 to 165 the action, and 2.040.000 are offered to the sale to paid and former wage earners of the chain to 132 francs the action.
Following the repurchase of the chain, Francis Bouygues becomes about it president and Patrick Le Lay vice-president, and the two men commit themselves in writing in front of CNCL respecting the quality of the programs, with an ambitious schedule of conditions. But the employees of the chain undergo this change of status of their employer with suspicion: many journalists use of their clause of conscience to leave it, and the majority of the organizer-high-speed motorboats of TF1 (Patrick Sabatier, Patrick Sebastien, Stephan Collaro, Marie-France Cubadda) leave on the Five to the re-entry 1987. To start with Patrick Sabatier, they return all a few months later, consolidating the hegemony of the chain. The daily newspaper Parisian the title then with its One with an interview of the leaders of the chain saying that “ If Patrick Sabatier knocks on the door of TF1, I will open to him”. In 1988, Francis Bouygues entrusts the presidency to Patrick Le Lay. The chain changes preparing in July 1989 and the change officially finished the January 6th 1990 for the 15 years of the chain by adopting a rectangular logo taking again the three national colors to continue like French Television.
From 1991, TF1 becomes again the first chain in term of audience. Since it reigns as a Master on the French audiences, being held with the mounting of the innovations launched by its principal competitor, M6, to counter it on its own ground.
The concession of diffusion of the company French Télévision 1 SA on the first hertzian domestic network is renewed for five New Year's Days without invitation to tender by the Superior council of audio-visual the (SCUMS) on March 26th 1996, which leads association “Change the One” to in vain deposit a recourse in front of the Council of State on April 4th against this absence of call for candidate vis-a-vis the failures of the chain to its schedule of conditions since 1987. This authorization again was renewed for five years by SCUMS on November 20th 2001 on the hertzian analog network and a new authorization to him was delivered on June 10th 2003 on the French Digital terrestrial television.
As of the beginning of its diffusion on TNT, TF1 diffuses some of its programs to the format 16/9, such as many series or films.
May 22nd 2007, TF1 diffuses for the first time a program in VM (Multilingue version). Any televiewer provides with a decoder TNT can thus choose to see the program in French version (VF) or subtitled original version (VOST), which represents an major advance in the exploitation of this mode of diffusion which is TNT.
TF1 envisaged retransmettre the integrality of its programs to the format 16/9 since 2008-2009, a decision taken following the arrival of TVHD (Télévison with high-definition) in France in 2006. While waiting, principal emissions of the chain ( Star Academy , Attention with walk , the wheel of fortune …) already adopted this format since the summer 2007 on TNT and the other emissions should follow in the weeks to come. Remain very awaited JT of TF1 (according to certain in March 2008 sources). It should be noted that TF1 publicity announced that as of January 2008 publicities will be diffused in 16/9 and thus the preparing of the chain should also undergo this transformation. Finally the programs with format 4/3 should be cut out during their diffusion in the years to come, as it is already the case on the chain NRJ12.
(except with the multipost one of Free)
TF1 forms also part of the free numerical bouquet of TNT by satellite, known as " TNTSAT" diffused (as of June 2007) under the aegis of the Group Canal+ via the satellite Astra 1. TF1 should join is the technical bouquet of the Grouping of the TNT via the satellite Atlantic Bird 3 and/or its own bouquet on the same orbital position, where it is already diffused there but in analogy. TF1 should also be present in free access on the headlight of Europe, the satellite Hot-Bird.
Image of the chainTF1 conquered a particular place in the French audiovisual landscape, in particular thanks to the personalities, journalists and organizers, which did the “One”: Leon Zitrone, Yves Mourousi, Roger Gicquel, Guy Lux, Denise Fabre, Michel Polac, Patrick Poivre d' Arvor, Bruno Masure, Anne Sinclair, Igor Barrère, Stephan Collaro, Jean-Pierre Foucault, Patrick Sabatier, Patrick Sebastien, Christophe Dechavanne, Dorothée, and well of others still. The newspapers of TF1 remain voted by plebiscite by French (50 % of them regard as the best against 25 % for the second France 2). According to a survey Ipsos , the chain however recorded a retreat of the level of satisfaction of the televiewers with 49 %, placing it in fifth position of the French hertzian chains. The programs of entertainment are with the cinema and the French fictions, the spearhead of the chain to the detriment of the cultural emissions. In 2002, TF1 was the French chain diffusing less cultural programs. One will be able nevertheless to note that she is more rarely shown parisianism than her colleagues, a situation which remains one of the heavy tendencies of audio-visual the français.
More disconcerting is this constant feeling always to find `same the heads' - this problem is not specific to TF1 - when a debate of type the intellectual or political is organized in a formal way, which raises the questions of the representation of the ideas about the popular chains and the seizure of certain political celebrities about the debate public.
On an aspect deontologic, one reproaches the chain his leading policy aiming at making tv news a vector of self-promotion of programs in of which it with exclusiveness (football, TV-reality, formule1) in order to guarantee the audience.
NeutralityAccording to certain points of view, the chain would have sometimes the reflex to support a certain French line. At the time of the marketing year 1995, she is very often shown to support the candidate with the presidential election Edouard Balladur, then Prime Minister. She is also shown to stigmatize immigration by negative reports in which this one is amalgamated with the insecurity. Didier Mathus, in Le Monde , showed TF1 to have carried out quasi daily subjects on the insecurity in France during the presidential campaign of 2002, and to have thus contributed to the results of the first turn. A TNS-Sofres survey of November 2006, indicates that 37% of the questioned people regard TF1 as a chain directed on the right but also as the chain meeting best the needs for the televiewers and incarnating best the public service.
The advertisement of the change of post office to the head of TF1, relating to “one of the closest collaborators of Nicolas Sarkozy, without any preliminary experiment in audio-visual” the , was announced by the Elysium, and not by the company, according to Francois Bayrou.
The philosophy of TF1 in questionTo crown this table of criticisms, which are also the revealing one of the notoriety of the chain, the sentence of the chairman of TF1, Patrick Le Lay included in the book the leaders vis-a-vis the change and of aucuns affirm taken out of its context “what we sell with Coca-Cola, it is time of human brain available” was multiple times taken again in chorus by the chroniclers. This sentence would have been marked at the time of a private phone conversation, or all at least not intended for the publication. Here is the exact sentence, not taken out of its context:
" So that an advertisement is perceived, it is necessary that the brain of the televiewer is available. Our emissions have the role to make it available: i.e. to divert it, to slacken it to prepare it between two messages. What we sell in Coca-Cola, it is time of human brain available (...). "
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