See also: Tokyo (homonymy)
Tokyo (in Japanese, romanized Tōkyō with the Method Hepburn) is the Capitale de facto of the Japan since 1868. It forms one of the 47 Préfectures of Japan, but has a particular administrative statute. The agglomeration of Tōkyō however extends very beyond the limits from the prefecture, around a good part of the Baie of Tōkyō, in the plain of the Kantō. It forms the most populated urban surface world, and that whose total GDP is highest.
Tōkyō means literally “capital 京 is 東” (in opposition to 京都, Kyōto, literally “capital city”, the preceding capital, located more at the west); its old name is Edo (), “carries river”, in reference to the river Sumida which crosses it. In French, the inhabitants of Tōkyō are called the “Tokyo ones” or the “Tokyoïtes”
Transcription of the name of “Tōkyō”
In Japanese, Tokyo is written and. The Méthode Hepburn gives the C-W communication Tōkyō (the ō note a O long), the Méthode Kunrei note Tokyo and the Méthode JSL, Tookyoo . The Japanese government also authorizes the use of the C-W communication “Tohkyoh” on the passports, taking again a representation of the long vowels familiar to the english-speaking.
In French, one does not pronounce “Tokyo” in the same way as in Japanese and one generally writes “Tokyo”, which corresponds to the French pronunciation /t ɔ.kjo/. The old C-W communication Tokio which was used in French at the beginning of the 20th century, is always used in German and Esperanto.
For the France, the Stopped of November 4th, 1993 relating to the terminology of the names of State S and Capital S, jointly taken by the Minister S of the Foreign affairs and the State education, the only C-W communication Tokyo “recommends”. The same applies to the commission of toponymy of the national geographical Institut French and of the inter-institutional code of drafting of the European Union.
Definitions of Tokyo
- the 23 districts special ((, Tokubetsu-ku ) replace the old municipality of Tōkyō, dissolved in 1943. On the administrative level, they form each city and municipalities distinct comparable with the other Japanese city-municipalities ( shi ), if it is not that they do not gather in districts differently than by the prefecture-metropolis to which these municipalities belong from now on. These special districts (current municipalities) join together more than 8 million inhabitants on 617 km ², that is to say approximately 13.000 hab/km ².
By center of Tōkyō, one can hear the 23 special districts. In a more restrictive direction, the expression can indicate the districts served by the Yamanote, an important line of circular train. More narrowly still the center can make reference to the three most central districts, Chūō, Minato and Chiyoda. It is in the latter that is the imperial palace and majority of the great national political institutions.
the prefecture or metropolis of Tōkyō (東京都, Tōkyō-to) includes/understands the 23 special districts and other territories. It is not superimposed on the agglomeration of Tōkyō: it includes/understands rural areas, in its western part whereas the agglomeration extends largely in close prefectures. The prefecture of Tōkyō has a greater autonomy than the others. Since 1999, the governor of the metropolis of Tōkyō is Shintarō Ishihara (), writer, and very discussed Politician.
There exist many manners of delimiting the agglomeration of Tokyo. Within the meaning of UNO, the urban surface of Tokyo Yokohama is populated world. It extends from broad parts of the prefectures Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and some parts of other prefectures. It counts 34,3 million inhabitants on 7835 km ², that is to say approximately 4400 habitants/km ⁹.
In a statistical direction running, the metropolitan Aire of Tōkyō includes the totality of the prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama. It thus includes/understands the essence of the agglomeration of Tōkyō as well as less urbanized surrounding areas. It counts approximately 34 million inhabitants and extends on nearly 14.000 km ².
The development of EdoAfter the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu Tokugawa, become Shogun, transforms the small village of Edo into military and administrative capital. Kyōto remains the official capital but is only the residence of an emperor to the reduced capacities. He inaugurates thus the Period Edo, also called the era of the shoguns . In 1657, a large fire destroyed most of the city and killed close to 100 000 people. The city counted nearly a million inhabitants as of the 18th century (on thirty million Japanese).
- 1603 the Shogun Ieyasu Tokugawa, transforms the small village of Edo into military and administrative center national. Kyōto remains the official capital but is only the residence of an emperor to the reduced capacities. He inaugurates thus the Period Edo, also called the era of the shoguns . In 1657, a large fire destroyed most of the city and killed close to 100 000 people. The city counted nearly a million inhabitants as of the 18th century (on thirty million Japanese).
- 1855 : earthquake
September 1868: Edo becomes the capital in the place of Kyōto, and is famous Tōkyō
- 1872: construction of the railway line Tōkyō-Yokohama
- 1877: construction of the railway line Kōbe - Ōsaka - Tōkyō
- September 1st 1923: earthquake of Kantō a magnitude of 7,9: 142 807 died and disappeared
- March 10th, 1945: air raid by the the United States. More 100 000 dead
- 1946: at the end of the Second world war, the Tribunal of Tōkyō was held in the capital
- 1948: verdict of the Court of Tōkyō
- 1964: Olympic Games
- 1984: visit of the Korean president
- 1995: terrorist attack with the Gas Sarin in the subway, earthquake with Kōbe
ClimateTōkyō profits from relatively soft winters, with little or not of snow (average minimal of 5 at 6°C in January and February). On the other hand, the summers are hot (average of 26°C but regularly more than 30°C) and especially very wet. It is mainly because of these strong heats that a multitude of drink distributers (Jidohanbaiki) are disseminated a little everywhere in the city.
The bay of Tōkyō also undergoes a rain season (Tsuyu) of at the beginning of June at mid-July and can undergo tropical storms or Cyclone S: for example on October 10th, 2004, the typhoon My one made ten deaths. Winds of 140  were measured; km/h and of important precipitations (70 mm in one hour). This cyclone was the twenty-second of the Asia-Pacific surface and the ninth to directly strike Japan since June 2004. The previous week, the typhoon Meari, had made 22 died and six missings.
SeismicityThe area of Tokyo east to the crossroads of three tectonic plates (plate Filipino, Eurasian plate, and the North-American plate) which overlap the ones with the others and which constitutes one of the seismic zones most active of the world. One counts on average an earthquake felt per day according to the world recordings of the seisms (see the Japan Meteorological Agency or USGS). The near total of them do not cause or little damage.
Some are on the other hand extremely fatal. September 1st, 1923, a seism had made more than 140.000 victims and nearly 2 million homeless people. Its magnitude at summer estimated at 7,9 on the scale of Richter. This phenomenon can be explained for example when one of the three tectonic plates remains blocked too a long time and why a great quantity of energy accumulates: once slackened, it creates a seism a magnitude often equal or higher than 7. If the three plates were blocked, which is not very probable but possible, released energy would be such as nothing would not resist the total destruction.
According to the group of research TEAM Tokyo, a very violent seism occurs every approximately 400 years. There would be only 0,5% of chances that such a seism occurs in the 30 years to come. There would be on the other hand 30% of chances that a less violent seism but causing however important damage occurs during the same time. More the violent one seism of these last years took place in 2005 and started in his bay a magnitude of 5,9 on the open scales of Richter generating of the movements of panic but successors in title no victims and only of the moderate damage.
Tokyo obtained the most resistant structures of the world which can face a seism until a magnitude of 8 without crumbling. In spite of that, a seism magnitude 7 only starting under the city could cause gigantic damage.
There exists in Tōkyō of the Gratte-ciel of more than 200 meters. Their manufacturers affirm that they can resist strongest jolts the; but as time passes, the fear of a new seism increases and of great alarm drills are organized.
Urban structure and architecture
Tokyo developed without centralized public planning. The plan of the very complex east city thus and seems to lack unit. Its streets with the heterogeneous aspect, and without name for the majority, are a mixture of modern ultra constructions and shacks without age. All the districts break up into districts which all intersect, equipped with a quite specific atmosphere.
The accumulation of the populations is considerable on nearly 65 kilometers. The town planning of the city demolished all the laws of traditional urban aesthetics. It reigns in this immense agglomeration an impression of urban jungle where the buildings pile up the ones on the others, of small the large ones côtoient, while being close to immense highways supported by enormous pillars and indicator of the thousands of workers at the rush hours.
The most expensive districts, those densément populated and the principal skyscrapers are in ten districts more in the center of Tokyo.
The agglomeration of Tokyo was built around a bay. The role of the sea is important there: one finds several of the large Japanese ports there. However, for lack of place, one endeavoured to gain territories on the sea.
According to a classification 2007 carried out by the real group Knight Frank and ISIC Private Bank, subsidiary of Citigroup, Tōkyō is the fifth most expensive city of the world with regard to the prices of the residential real estate of luxury: : 17600 euros per square meter. At the time of the peak of the Real estate bubble of 1991 - 1992, the price of the square meter with Ginza, center commercial and of businesses, exceeded 100 000 dollars.
That Tōkyō, the most populated capital world, is not for a long time in state of necroses advanced, nor in permanent congestion, has what to astonish. However it “functions” even better than of other large cities. The evening, to return on their premises, the majority of paid the tokyoïtes make 1 or 2 hours of voyage in crammed trains, which follow one another a maximum frequency.
Twinnings and partnerships
Economic or cultural contracts (Paris and Rome are truly twinned only between them):
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