The systema (Russian: Cистема ) term meaning “system” is a Russian Martial art used by certain groups of the Russian special forces. It was created according to the observation by scientists, certain techniques used in various known martial arts, in Russia and around planet. It would rest in fact on a Russian martial art old, known since the 10th century, and improved during the Soviet era with creation of the Samoz of Viktor Afanasevich Spirodonov. The Soviet government had restricted of it the training and the use with certain divisions of its forces of elites, like the Spetsnaz (Russian: Спецназ ), term indicating the Special forces. Since the dissolution of the the USSR, the practice of the systema is opened with all.
The systema draws the source of its origin in several different sources. Among all these sources, the two principal influences are found especially in Samoz (Sambo) of Victor Spirodonov with the integration of the military gymnastics applied and in old Russian martial arts, going up until the time of Bogatyr. This last source however debatable and is discussed. The bonds connecting the systema to old Russian martial arts (AMR) never could be clearly established in a specific and significant way. In fact, they would be rather the result of a campaign ultranationalist, associating any creation, product of the USSR, coming from a traditional inheritance, with an aim of supporting and of promoting nationalism lasting the period of the Cold war. No direct link connecting the systema to AMR forever been able to be clearly established nor proven. Various other methods of combat body to body Soviet and coming from other origins, dating from the Second world war, also influenced the systema.
The systema was also known during the period of the cold war under the name of Combat Sambo Spetsnaz . This Russian martial art is the evolutionary form of the " Samoz " and/or of the " Sambo " of Viktor Spirodonov. The evolution of Samoz de Spirodonov and Sambo d' Oshchepkov was maintained simultaneously with the sambo (sporting and military) by the NKVD which itself became the KGB thereafter. It is out of the official path of the evolution of military and sporting Sambo, that the systema was created, even if the latter rests on the basis of work of Spirodonov on Samoz.
Another theory lies in the fact that the modern systema is the result of an intensive research and development of a project spreading out on several generations of instructors of combat body to body with the Dynamo of Moscow between the years 1920-1980. This places the systema in the same line of military training at the combat body at body as Sambo of combat and other styles relative.
The systema is defined as an art where the economy of the movements and relaxation are paramount elements with the combat. It can comprise several similarities relating to the techniques of the Aïkido, the Taiji quan and martial arts known as " interns" in general. Its design is intended to be highly adaptable and practical. The drive is carried out with the means of exercises based on biomechanics of the human body, of the exercises of breathing and drive with partner (S), instead of the preset traditional Kata. The emphase is placed mainly on the six levers of the body (elbows, neck, knees, size, ankles and shoulders), like on the teaching of the points of pressures and their applications just as on the inversions and projections. There is not, strictly speaking, of techniques which are taught with the systema. Teaching is based rather on the training of principles connected to the combat and which support the improvisation in all circumstances.
The blows carried are relatively free, contrary in the majority of Eastern martial arts; there are no postures, nor of preset sequences. The practitioner is free to develop his imagination. The technical side rather relates to the way of giving the blows. During the engagements the blows are systematically carried; the gesture goes until its term. It is the speed of the exercise which varies according to the level of the combatants, which makes it possible to break up real attacks and gradually to increase its speed of execution. With the systema, there is no specific rank nor of behavior. The courses proceed around various exercises:
Exercise in against one.
- Exercise in particular position (sitted on a chair, in a corridor, against knives or firearms…).
- 2 or 3 against one.
- Exercise all against one, called the Farmhouse Attack where the whole of the course is caught some with only one participant, the defendant having to learn how to move, dodge, to protect themselves and escape.
The Respiration is the angular stone of the systema. The training and the control of its breathing must make it possible to dissipate the pain, to carry the blows and to attack with conscience and effectiveness, and to be under good conditions of combat. At the end of the course, all the combatants find themselves in circle to discuss the exercises. It is the moment of the theoretical and collective training.
Because there exist several different styles of combat practiced by the Russian Armed forces and its Special forces, several of these arts of engagements are confused with the systema. For example, certain divisions and members of the Special forces involve themselves with the Boevoe Sambo (sambo of combat), this last being a method distinct from the systema. On the other hand, other bodies of Special forces are involved with the Boevoe Sambo Spetsnaz (sambo of combat of the Special forces), which is the old name that the systema during the period of the cold war carried, from where the existence of a certain confusion.
The first practitioners of systema were the bodyguards personnel of Joseph Stalin, the Sokoli Stalina . After the death of Stalin, the systema became a style of combat employed by certain Units of Special Military operations for the high-risk missions: the Spetsnaz . They operated for the KGB, the governmental GRU and other offices. There existed and there always exists, various arts of combat taught and practiced by the units of the Russian Special forces and the systema is one among others. Therefore, the Spetsnaz units do not practice all the systema. Today, certain units of Spetsnaz of the GRU, for example, are involved according to a method of combat much nearer to the Kung-fu Chinese, not having any bond with the systema, taught by Alexander Popov. [http://www.kungfulibrary.com/qi-gong-tiet-sin-video.htm]
The denomination of the manual combat, is in Russia rukopashnii boi (Рукопашныйбой), and this term also recovers the use of weapons, contrary to the Sambo
Attention, within sight of the success of Systema, and the innovation effect of Spetznaz, many Russian start to be claimed old of the special troops, and even if with most extremely of the cold war, there were approximately 30.000 Spetznaz in activity, all are not same level.
Since certain practitioners involve themselves in their own method with their own comprehension, their style reflects more and more their preference and their single personality. This is an observation already noted in the students senior and other high level practitioners. Several methods of systema were thus created, of which here most popular:
Kadochnikov SystemaFounded by Aleksey Alekseyevich Kadochnikov (father) in 1962, and developed by the general Arkady Alekseyevich Kadochnikov (wire) and Valentina Aleksandrovna Kadochnikova (little girl). Kadochnikov Systema is based partly on Samoz (Sambo) of Spiridonov like several Russian shapes of combat to the body with body, dating from the Second world war. Aleksey Alekseyevich Kadochnikov was engineer in mechanical engineering. For this reason this system rests in its teaching on the laws of physics applied to the combat.
Official site of the kadochnikov system: ОфициальныйсайтСистемыКадочниковаА. А.
Retuinskih Systema or ROSSFounded by the general Alexander Retuinskih in 1995. ROSS (Russian: РОСС ) is an acronym which comes from (Russian: РоссийскаяОтечественнаяСистемаСамозащиты ) " R ossiyskaya O techestvennaya S ystema S amozashchity " and results in " System of Russian self-defense of origin ". This system is conceived more like one methodology to increase the performances with the combat, applicable to any martial art, rather than a closed system. The experiment of Alexander Retuinskih is based on the Boxe, Boevoe Sambo (Sambo of combat), the Judo and Kadochnikov Systema. It includes/understands the Samoz (Sambo) of Spirodonov, the Sambo of Oshchepkov and Kharlampiev. Direct pupil of the general Alexander Retuinskih, Scott Sonnon is the first American to have taught and popularized this system of combat outside Russia.
Ryabko Systema or Poznai SebiaFounded by the colonel* Mikhail Ryabko. Former officer of the Red Army , Mikhail Ryabko evolved/moved as commando in the special forces, the Spetsnaz. The principal influence of its system of combat comes from the teaching of the one of the members of the Sokoli Stalina , the " Falcons of Stalin " ; the father or the uncle de Mikhail Ryabko (assertion of M.Ryabko not-proven to date), which was one of the bodyguards personnel of Joseph Stalin. Like all Russian martial arts, the systema is not only that one simple method of combat but includes/understands also a method of physical exercises having for goal to improve health. This practice is carried out by exercises in cool water, of the massages, of strike " curatives" special as several other exercises the purpose of which are drastiquement to increase the force and tonicity by means of a range of natural movements of the body. " Poznai Sebia " is translated of Russian into French by: “Know yourself”. Mikhail Vasilievich Ryabko is colonel at Spetsnaz, instructor chief of the tactical drive for the team of emergency answer and adviser for the Minister for the Justice of the Russian Federation. The most known pupil of Ryabko is Vladimir Vasiliev, former captain of the army and member of Spetsnaz. Together (Ryabko and Vasiliev), they assert the paternity of their systema as being based on their personal own experiences.
- *Note : In the Russian Army, the row (rank) as well as the level of authorized access are directly connected. Mikhail Ryabko acts officially as colonel in the Russian army but also as special adviser for the Russian government. One thus decreed to him the rank of general for safety reasons. -
There also exists, some other minor styles of systema:
- Brander Systema (Russian: СистемаБрандер )
VOIN Systema (Russian: СистемаВОИН )
SPAS (Russian: СПАС - " С пециальная П рикладная А рмейская С истема")
- Sibirskij Vjun HTTP: /www.sibirskij-vjun.de.vu/another school of Rukopashnii Boi (Russian: СибирскийВьюн )
All the systema in France
- Systema France Site of the club of the House of the Armenian culture: Principles, history, bases of this system of weapon.
- the site of Arkady Alekseyevich Kadochnikov, founder of Kadochnikov Systema
- the site of Alexander Retuinskih, founder of the ROSS
- the site of Mikhail Ryabko, founder of Ryabko Systema
- the site of Vladimir Vasiliev, that which made known Systema in occident.
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