Symphony n° 4 of Dvořák
Dvořák composes its Fourth Symphony during the intense creative time which follows its marriage. The complete partition is completed in less than three months, from January 1st to March 26th, 1874.
From one duration from approximately 40 to 43 minutes, the Fourth Symphony includes/understands the following movements:
- Andante sostenuto E molto cantabile
- Scherzo: Wild allegro
- Final: Allegro idiot brilliance
The Symphonie is traversed by an almost warlike heat: the pointed rates/rhythms are particularly marked in the fast movements and the Scherzo , indicated wild ( wild ), utilizes some Percussion instruments unusual. With the Third , it is the only symphony of Dvořák which uses the Harpe. The Andante is a very fluid succession of variations on a solemn topic entrusted to the winds only, often close to those of the opera Tannhäuser of Richard Wagner. The Musicologue Britannique Michael Kennedy rather sees there the prefiguration of an important topic of the oratorio The Kingdom of Edward Elgar, the more so as Elgar played some recoveries as a Violoniste of orchestra under the direction of Dvořák at the time of the stays of this last in England. Spectacular the Scherzo comprises a center section in the form of walk, punctuated by the percussions and the Trille S brilliances of several groups of the orchestra, including the Basson S.
The two extreme movements have a similar atmosphere: martial elements are opposed to a melody with expansive lyricism. Certain developments are particularly hard: one hears there powerful blows of isolated drinking cups (often preceded by a Appogiature) which are one of the orchestral signatures of Dvořák. The lyric topic of the first movement is accompanied by Pizzicati (cords pinches), whereas that of the last movement is sung at the end by all the orchestra under the hammerings of the drinking cups.
InstrumentationThe symphony is written for orchestra with 2 Flûte S, piccolo, 2 Hautbois, 2 Clarinette S, 2 Basson S, 4 horns, 2 Trompette S, 3 Trombone S, drinking cups, various percussions, Harpe, and cords.
Creation and publicationBedrich Smetana only gives the first execution of the Scherzo on May 25th, 1874. After some adjustments made in 1887 - 88, Dvořák directs the creation of work in its entirety on April 6th, 1892 to Prague. Like the three preceding symphonies, the Quatrième is not published the alive one of the type-setter, but only in the Années 1960. This orchestral work, however energetic and very coloured, more on will be recorded on disc played in concert.
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