One indicates under the term switchgear the whole of the materials allowing the setting under or not under tension of the portions of a Electrical communication.
FunctionsAccording to the international electrotechnical Commission (CEI), the switchgear is a general term applicable to the apparatuses of connection and their combination with adjustment and protection, measurement, controllers which are associated to them, like to the whole of such apparatuses with connections, the accessories, the envelopes and the frames corresponding.
The CEI distinguishes the switchgear which is intended to be used in the field of the production, transport, the distribution and the transformation of electrical energy.
One thus gathers in particular under this term the following apparatuses:
The assemblies which include/understand this type of apparatuses form also part of the switchgear.
LocalizationThe electricals appliance are present at all the places of a Electrical communication where an insulation and a protection are necessary. They can be present near the generators, of the engines, the transformers and in the electric stations.
In the electric stations, the switchgear is necessary at the same time upstream and downstream from the electric tranformator. The equipment of the tension low part is sometimes gathered in a PDC ( Power Distribution Center ). This building generally has circuit breakers the Medium Average one (~15kV) to ensure the protection of the delivery system. One can also find other equipment such as relay, equipment of measurement and communication to ensure the control of the electric station.
For the industrial applications, the transformer and equipment are generally gathered in the same building.
Equipment low tension can be entirely integrated in a building. For tensions higher than 66kV, the circuit breakers must often be gone up outside and insulated in the air, which claims much place. The equipment of the armor-plated type (or GI) makes it possible to gain place, but they have a cost more high.
In the small electric stations, equipment can be ordered manually, while the most important sub-stations have all of the control devices motorized to allow the management of the remote network.
Equipment with low tensionThey are the apparatuses for which the tension of employment is lower than 1000 V.
Equipment with high voltage
See also: Switchgear with high voltage
The high voltage gathers the old Medium Average one (HTA) and the old high voltage (HTB), it thus relates to the apparatuses of assigned tension higher than 1000 Volt, in alternative course, and higher than 1500 V in the case of current continuous.
Notes & References
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