Surface-on-the-Lily (in Dutch: Ariën ) is a common French, located in the department of the Pas-de-Calais and the area Nord-Pas-de-Calais. Chief town of a canton which counts 23.256 inhabitants. Its inhabitants is called the Airois .
SituationTo 230 km of Paris, to 58 km of Arras (the place chief of department) to 65 km of Lille, 60 km of Calais, 58 km of Boulogne-sur-Mer, Surface-on-the-Lily is almost at equal distance from the great urban centres of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The city is the first city crossed by the Lys which is thrown in the the Scheldt with Ghent, it is also girdled by the Lacquette (affluent of the Lily), by the Liauwette and the channel of Neufossé.
HistorySurface-on-the-lily is quoted first once in 857. The city will develop around the Castrum that Baudoin II, count de Flandre, makes build to resist the invasions Normans and around collegial the Saint-Pierre built by Baudoin V.
The city is besieged ten times between 1127 and 1710. It will be separated from the Flanders and will be attached to the Comté of Artois in 1196. It is then Burgundian, then Spanish. The city is besieged in 1676 by Vauban. It remains Spanish until April 14th, 1713 when by the Traité of Utrecht, it is definitively attached to France. This Fortified town, whose Vauban did one of the strategic positions of sound pre square , is dismantled in 1893.
Administration|- | align=center| Mars 2001 with today||align=center|Andre Demaret||align=center| UMP || |- | align=center|-||align=center|François-Xavier Becuwe ||align=" center" | RPR ||
Places and monuments
collegial the Saint-PierreWitness of the splendor of the city, collegial the Saint-Pierre is high in the place of the primitive Romance building, between 1492 and the 18th century, one can see as well inside as outside the building of the carved stones specifying the dates of progress of the work. It is parish church since 1802.
Finished in 1624, the tower collapsed. Ten years later, the evil was repaired but the canons celebrated the office there. The Western tower is included at its base by the prolongation of the sides and of the contiguous vaults, the transept is not projecting. The ground floor, the nave, the chorus, the high vaults and the Intersecting ribs are primarily Gothic.
One notices an interesting furniture with an organ of 1633, the Statue of Notre-Dame bread basket of 1510, a statue of Virgin of Flemish invoice of the 15th century and the pulpit as well as the Jubé which are of 1842.
Dimensions of the building are impressive:
- external overall length: 105 meters
- external total width: 40 meters
- width of the central nave: 10 meters
- height of the large vaults: 20 meters
- height of the side vaults: 10 meters
- height of the tower: 66 meters
Collegial the Saint-Pierre is one of the most important and imposing monuments of blazing style and Rebirth in the southernmost Netherlands.
It has the characteristics of a large cathedral but in the absence of one évéché in Aire, it can assert only the title of collegial.
It was classified historic building in 1862. The upper part of the tower was restored between May 2005 and April 2007, it is visible today in all its splendor.
- the building of Flemish Renaissance style which rises with the angle of the Town square and the street of Arras was built, between 1595 and 1600, to be used as body of guard with the militia of the city. It is called commonly Bailliage , because with various recoveries, between 1634 and 1789, it was used as seat with the court of the large baillif d' Aire. It is about a work wanted by the magistrate of the city, which still contributed to military defense. It was then the beginning of the happy time of the Archdukes which saw the transformation of Surface-on-the-Lily.
- * the completion of Collegial the Saint-Pierre;
- * the completion of the Notre-Dame church, destroyed today;
- * the installation of new butcheries.
- * the completion of the Notre-Dame church, destroyed today;
Many artists and craftsmen were then present at Aire and the body of guard benefitted from it.
The mayor in exercise in 1597, Jacques de Caverel obtained letters of Brussels authorizing the city with raising a tax on beer and the wine for the construction of a body of guard on the market of the city. The monument was inaugurated on November 22nd, 1600. The building is presented in the form of an irregular quadrilateral of 125 square meters surface on the ground, with 3 frontages giving respectively on the Town square, the street of Arras and on what was at the time the street of the Cooks. The architect, Pierre Framery took as a starting point a building belonging to the old Town hall of Amsterdam, disappeared in 1651, this explains the speed of construction and this fact its brittleness. Many restorations were necessary during the centuries.
The frontages of the body of guard are richly decorated, even that which escapes the glance. On the frontages of the Town square and street of the Borough, fine stone columns respectively support 4 and 3 arcades. A Bretèche, detail of Flemish architecture, made of this monument an Italianized little brother of the municipal palates of the Netherlands. The plank above the arcades represents the badges of the house of Burgundy, the attributes of the Golden Fleece, the lighters posed on knotty sticks in cross of Saint-Andrew, etc
The pediments of the windows of the 1st stage comprise trophies of weapons and the mention " Anno 1600 ". A Attic at the top of the building, is decorated statues appearing the three theological virtues (Faith, Espérance, and Charity), the 4 cardinal virtues (Prudence, Justice, Force, and Temperance), the 4 elements (fire, water, air, ground) and a character, representation of Pierre Framery, project superintendent of the building. Lastly, the roof is surmounted by a wind vane in form of Sagittarius. In 1907, was placed, under the arcades of Bailliage, a sandstone with the weapons of Tramerie, coming from the palate of the Room. The interior of the Body of guard is more sober than outside. Three levels are found:
- the cellar
- the room of the ground floor which measures 6 m out of 7, it is paved bricks. A splendid chimney is surmounted weapons of Artois. A remarkable wood staircase led on the floor.
- the big room of the stage makes 10 m out of 11. She has a beautiful chimney in which one placed earthenware squares of Airoise manufacture of the 18th century. To especially notice the superb frame of the ceiling.
The Town hallAfter the return of Surface to the kingdom of France by the Treated of Utrecht in 1713, the Magistrate otint of the king Louis XIV, in recognition of the sufferings of the city during the seat of 1710 and under the Dutch occupation, the authorization to build a new Town hall more prestigious than the building of then considered to be too modest. The project was entrusted to Héroguel, architect of Louis XIV in Arras (raises famous Jules Hardouin-Mansart), and work was allocated to Pierre Descamps. Started on May 16th 1716, they were completed with the end of the year 1721. The old belfry had crumbled in 1708, the construction of a new belfry was also undertaken.
The majestic one and monumental building which we see today supported any external modification since its construction.
The frontage is bored of two central doors, one gives access to the gallery of Halettes, the second with a monumental staircase. Between these two doors, had been affixed a marble plate with a Latin inscription pointing out the names of those which had governed the erection of the monument. This plate disappeared. The second level is bored of 11 openings - 3 in the center, 4 on each wing; the central window opening on a balcony supported by a Bottom of lamp .
Perfectly scheduled by 10 Pilaster S whose 2 doubles framing the central spans, the frontage of the Town hall is crowned of a balustrade charged with remarkable sculptures and trophies. The pediment which emerges from the central part, is a height corresponding to two thirds height of the body of the monument.
the Force and Justice , distributed on both sides, fix it visually, and in its center, the weapons of the city accompanied by the bust of Louis XV. In the high part, a head appears Apollon, god of the Sun, emblem of the Large King: Louis XIV.
Until 1830, the ground floor was occupied by various shops, and until 1851, the right wing was occupied by the inn of the Caretaker's lodge. The common house had only the 1st stage of the left wing. It is into 1891 that the public library was installed at the ground floor of the left wing.
The 1st left stage preserved its initial installation with the big room the Market, the vault converted into office, grafts it city become room of the marriages. The courtrooms and the secret room will be used at various ends.
The room of the marriages have many remarkable elements like:
- the large marble chimney furnished with small earthenware squares of the beginning of the XIXe century;
- 4 statues of the cardinal virtues which come from the Great lady: collegial the Saint-Pierre. Work of the XVIIIe century. They had been acquired in 1792;
- two tables representing J. of Caverel and its wife Marie de Malbrancq;
- a table representing the Spanish troops in front of Surface in 1641;
- the banner of the Echo of the Bards, gift of Jules Hunebelle in 1870.
The room of the Friendship has:
- the text of the charter granted to the city in 1188 by the Count of Flanders Philippe of Alsace.
Hallettes make us discover a sublime frame built into 1716 which forms the ceiling of the passage.
The public library contains as for it the files of the city and the acts of Christendom (the files of Surface-on-the-Lily are colossal and are a gold mine for the Historians or the amateurs of History).
Historic buildings of Surface-on-the-Lily
the Belfry (classified with the World heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2005), high of 30 Measuring apparatus S (a measuring apparatus being worth 1,98 meters), of the same time as the Town hall but following a fire in 1914, the Bell-tower and the interior parts out of wood were rebuilt in 1923.
- the Chapelle Saint-Jacob, old college Jesuit, built by Jean Beegrand between 1682 and 1688.
- Abbaye Saint-Augustin-at-Clarques April 23rd, 1947
- Ancien Hotel of the Governor - Frontage and roof: inscription by decree of the Old April 23rd, 1947
- bailliage classification by decree of July 12th, 1886
- Old brewery-malt factory of the Lily - Frontages and roofs of the workshop of production (brewery and malt factory: building A), of the old stable (building B) and the body of building adjoining with the frontage on court of the workshop of production (building C) (cad. AD 633): inscription by decree of December 31st, 1999
- Old doors of Arras and Saint-Omer Doors of Arras and Saint-Omer (old): inscription by decree of November 16th, 1942
- Bastion of Beaulieu Channel of the entry of water protected by a coffer dam and a lady, locality the Fork, between the C.R. 54 known as of Servoir and piece AO 232; main door of water and vestiges of the bastion of Beaulieu and the store with powder, locality District Vauban (AC 208): inscription by decree of April 27th, 1990
- Barracks Taix and Listenois - the barracks Taix (old barracks of cavalry) entirely; frontages and roofs of the barracks Listenois (old barracks of infantry); frontages and roofs, of which those on the street of the Tanners, the houses of the officers of the two barracks (cad. AD 706): inscription by decree of May 2nd, 2002
- Beaudelle Vault - frontages and the roofs (cad. Al 274): inscription by decree of February 5th, 2003
- College Frontages of the body of principal building and the wing in return and corresponding roofs: inscription by decree of the Saint-Jacques-the-Major November 23rd, 1946
- Church and Saint-Ignace: classification by decree of August 9th, 1942
- Saint-Pierre Church: classification by list of 1862
- Parish church Saint-Quentin (cad. BN 84): classification by decree of June 8th, 1989
- Strong Saint-François (called also strong Gassion), his visible vestiges, as well as the ground sheltering the vestiges of the fortifications (cad. ZB 44,45,125,127): inscription by decree of April 27th, 1990
- Hospital-Old people's home Midsummer's Day Frontage on street, roof and bell-tower of the vault: inscription by decree of November 23rd, 1946; Frontage on the street of Saint-Omer; frontages on court; roofs: inscription by decree of May 2nd, 1947
- Hotel of Orgeville - Frontage and roof on street: inscription by decree of February 25th, 1948
- Town hall and belfry - Frontages and roofs of the Town hall and the Belfry: classification by decree of September 15th, 1947
- Real 4 rue du Bourg - Frontage and roof: inscription by decree of February 25th, 1948
- Real 2 rue du Bourg - Frontage and roof: inscription by decree of February 25th, 1948
- 31 rue de Saint-Omer House - Frontage and roof on street: inscription by decree of February 25th, 1948
- 28 rue de Saint-Omer House - Frontage and roof on street: inscription by decree of February 25th, 1948
- 7 rue de Saint-Omer House - Frontage and roof: inscription by decree of February 25th, 1948
- 2 rue d'Arras House; in the past 3 Frontage and roof: inscription by decree of February 25th, 1948
- House of Dévotaires 18 rue Saint-Pierre - Frontage on street and roof: inscription by decree of September 5th, 1946
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