Sun Quan (182 - 252) (Chinese traditional: zh-Hant 孫權, simplified: Zh-Hans 孙权), of sound social First name Zhongmou (zh-Hant 仲謀), was a Seigneur of war Chinese at the time of the end of the Dynastie Han and first emperor of the dynasty of Wu Western at the time of the beginning of the period of the Three Kingdoms. Like many personalities of its time, Sun Quan was immortalisé in the Roman of the Three Kingdoms of Luo Guanzhong.
In 200, Sun Quan inherits the area of the Jiangdong, theoretically under vasselage of the emperor Xiandi of the Han dynasty, but keeping a great very great independence of share its geographical position. Sun Quan protected independence from its territory while leaving victorious the Bataille Red Cliff in 208. In 220, with the fall of Han, it renewed its oath of vassalage towards the news dynasty Wei, but proclaimed its independence in 222 by melting the Royaume of Wu of which it gave itself the title of emperor in 229. After its death, it was succeeded by his son Sun Liang and accepted the posthumous title of large emperor of Wu Western (zh-Hant 東吳大皇帝).
Its reign is characterized initially by a very effective management of the administration and a rigorous selection of its advisers, but worsens after years 230 when it makes several error of judgments which lead to military defeats and its staff alienates it temporarily. The end of its reign is marked by crises of succession and businesses of court.
YouthSun Quan is born towards 182. He is the junior by four wire of the lord of war Sun Jian, and the little brother of the warrior Sun This. According to the Memories of the river Yangzi , it is born in Xiapi, when his/her father was then appointed. It with the jaw square, the large mouth and brilliant eyes. It is of a human naturalness, having the ideas broad and liking to bind friendship with the heroic personalities.
Always according to the Memories of the river Yangzi , in the years which follow the death of Sun Jian into 191, when Sun This share with the conquest of Jiangdong, Sun Quan accompanies it. In spite of its youth, Sun Quan is very quickly made a name in the area and its celebrity is comparable with that of her father and her older brother. It takes part in the meetings of staff, and its talent largely impresses Sun It.
In 199, the lord of war CAD CAD must launch a campaign against his rival Yuan Shao and fears that Sun It does not benefit from it to attack it. He proposes in Sun This several marriages between their clans, and made pressure on the governor of the area so that this one recommends Sun Quan to the court as “an accomplished Talent” (zh-Hant 茂才) during the examination Xiaolian . Sun Quan is consequently named “commander making respect justice” (zh-Hant 奉義校尉). This same year, it accompanies Sun It in its forwarding against Liu Xun, the large administrator of Lujiang, then against Huang Zu with Shaxian.
Catch of successionThe May 5th 200, Sun This set seriously wounded in an attempted murder. On its bed of death, it officially makes of Sun Quan its successor.
According to the Memories of the river Yangzi , Li Shu, which had been appointed large administrator of Lujiang by Sun This, refuses to recognize Sun Quan like successor and foments a rebellion. On the councils of CAD CAD, Sun Quan launches a punitive forwarding. Li Shu, which counted on the assistance of CAD CAD and was unaware of that this one acted in.liaison.with Sun Quan, quickly is overcome and carried out. Its city is shaven and the thirty thousand survivors are rehoused.
Under the councils of Zhang Zhao, Sun Quan gives up mourning to take in hand the direction of the businesses of the area and to complete the conquests started with Sun It. CAD CAD recommends it to the emperor so that it is named “general punishing the criminals” (zh-Hant 討虜將軍) and large administrator of Kuaiji (zh-Hant 會稽太守), corresponding to the current town of Yuyao. It sends it poster in the area of Wu and sends an administrative assistant to him.
Sun Quan also sticks the services of the former advisers of generals of his father and his brother: it takes Zhang Zhao as tutor and principal adviser and names general the strategist Zhou Yu, the adviser Lu Fan and the soldier Cheng Pu. It leaves then to research new talents and recruits Yan Jun, Lu Known and Zhuge Jin.
WideningIn the years which follow, Sun Quan spider monkey to pacify the areas in the neighborhoods: in 203, it launches a naval forwarding against Huang Zu and a defeat inflicts to him, but does not manage to capture its base of operations. It sends Lu Fan to pacify Poyang (in the east of current the Comté of Poyang in the Jiangxi), Cheng Pu in Lean (is the current one city-counted Dexing), Taishi Ci in Haihun (current the Comté of Yongxiu). It charges Hang Dang, Zhou Tai and Lu Meng of the management of the various counties.
In 205, it sends He IQ to capture Shangrao which will be used as a basis to build the district of Jianping (the current one counted Jianyang in the Fujian). In 207, it launches a new campaign to the west against Huang Zu, which it renews in spring 208. The fleet of Huang Zu is exceeded by the tactics of the general Lu Meng and Huang Zu flees, but is captured by gangsters who offer his head to Sun Quan. This same year, Sun Quan sends He IQ to attack the districts of Yi (in the east of current the Yi) and She.
Be a prelude toTowards September 208, Liu Biao, the guard of the province of Jing, dies and Sun Quan dispatches Lu Known to attend the funeral, to present its condolences to wire of Liu Biao, and to observe the situation. But before Known Lu does not arrive, the province of Jing was subjected to CAD CAD. Lu Known makes however the meeting of the warrior Liu EIB when this last proclamation its intention to face CAD CAD. With the Battle of Changban, Liu EIB undergoes a severe defeat and takes refuge with Xiakou. It sends its strategist Zhuge Liang at Sun Quan to negotiate an alliance.
ConfrontationBy making the conquest of Jing, CAD CAD seems to hold from now on a position of choice to attack Sun Quan, the more so as it had reinforced its army with the former soldiers of Liu Biao. Sun Quan organizes a meeting of staff to decide procedure to follow. The majority of its generals think to be subjected to CAD CAD, but the strategist Zhou Yu, supported by Known Lu opposes vehement and considers it that in spite of their numerical inferiority, of many factors make that it is possible to resist to CAD CAD. Sun Quan decides to trust Zhou Yu and the command of the army like in Cheng Pu offers to him and gives to each one ten thousand soldiers and sends it to join the army of Liu EIB.
The confrontation enters the forces of the coalition Sun Quan - Liu EIB and those of CAD CAD to in November place to Red Cliff (in the North-West of the current town of Chibi, or in the North-East of Jiayu). According to the Memories of the river Yangzi , CAD CAD has an army then of: 800000 men while the coalition lays out of twenty times less men. The battle is however completed by a severe defeat for CAD CAD which loses its fleet in a fire and more half of its men because of epidemics. CAD CAD must beat a retreat.
ContinuationsSun Quan and Liu EIB try to ensure their positions and to try to capture the territories given up by CAD CAD in its escape: towards January 209, Sun Quan directs in person a forwarding to capture Hefei and sends Zhang Zhao to attack the district of Dangtu (in the south-east of current the Comté of Haiyuan). However the efforts of Sun Quan and Zhang Zhao are not crowned success and after a few months of seat, Sun Quan is to give up and withdraw themselves when the reinforcements of CAD CAD arrive.
Towards January - February 210, after nearly one year of seat, Zhou Yu manages to force CAD Ren to flee, and takes possession of the district of Nanjun (current Comté of Jiangling) whose Sun Quan appoints it large administrator. He also names Liu EIB general and offers to him the load of guard of the province of Xu, then protective of the province of Jing.
In 210, Sun Quan undertakes a reform of the administrative borders of its territory, then in 211, moves its capital with Molin (current the Nankin), makes build the castle of Dantou (in the west of Nankin), then in 212 definitively installs its administrative capital with Molin.
Battle of RuxuIn 212, learning that CAD CAD intended to launch a new campaign against him, Sun Quan makes build walls with the mouth of the Ruxu river. In February 213, CAD CAD attacks Ruxu, but is held in respect by the fortifications of Sun Quan. After one month, seeing the organization of the army of Sun Quan, it gives up the seat.
According to the History of Wu , during this countryside, CAD CAD loses several thousands of men at the time of the naval battles. Sun Quan tries to cause it to carry out openly battles, sometimes while being presented in person, but CAD CAD, scalded by its naval defeats and suspectant a trick, does not answer it. He sighs: “That I would like to have a son like Sun Zhongmou! In comparison the wire of Liu Jingsheng are such of the pigs and the dogs! ” Sun Quan sends later to CAD CAD a letter: “Water of spring will be soon there. Monseigneur, it is time that you withdraw yourselves. ” Seeing the organization of the army of Sun Quan, CAD CAD decides to be withdrawn, estimating that Sun Quan will not benefit from its retirement to attack it.
According to the Wei Lüe , CAD CAD made draw its archers on the ships from Sun Quan so that the weight of the arrows threatened to make them capsize. Seeing that, Sun Quan required of its vessels to be turned over so that the new arrows balance their weight, then was withdrawn.
First tensions against ShuIn July 214, Sun Quan leaves to the attack the castle Wan (corresponding to current the Comté of Qianshan) and in the month following captures it, making captive Lu Jiang, the large administrator of Zhuguang, and his military adviser, Dong He.
This same year, Liu EIB conquers the area of Shu (corresponding about to the current province of Sichuan). Indicator that Liu EIB had conquered a stronghold, Sun Quan sends near him Zhuge Jin in order to require of him to restore the province of Jing to him. Liu EIB refuses, and requires that Sun Quan wait time that it seizes the province of Liang. Irritated by the refusal of Liu EIB, Sun Quan sends mandarins to take the direction of the province in the place of Liu EIB, but they are driven out by the general Guan Yu.
This truly furious time, Sun Quan sends Lu Meng, Xian Yudan, Xu Zhong and Sun GUI with twenty thousand men to take again possession of the districts of Changsha, Lingling (current the Yongzhou) and Guiyang (current the Chenzhou). It also dispatches Lu Known with ten thousand men to defend Baqiu (the Baling mount, in the current town of Yueyang) against Guan Yu. Sun Quan settles with the mouth of the river Lu to supervise the army.
Lu Meng captures Changsha and Guiyang, but does not manage to come to end from Hao Pu, the large administrator of Lingling. On its side, Liu EIB sends Guan Yu to Yiyang with thirty thousand men, forcing Sun Quan to point out Lu Meng to assist Known Lu. Lu Meng manages meanwhile to subject Hao Pu by the trick, achieving its initial mission. According to the orders of Sun Quan, it amalgamates its army with those of Known Lu, Sun Jiao and Pan Zhang to face Guan Yu in Yiyang.
Nevertheless, the confrontation does not take place: the army of CAD CAD has just penetrated Hanzhong, offering a strategic place of choice to him to invade Shu. Liu EIB signs in all haste peace with Sun Quan and the province of Jing is divided: the districts of Changsha, Jiangxia and Guiyong return in Sun Quan, those of Nanjun, Lingling and Wuling (western of current the Changde) with Liu EIB.
Battle of HefeiTowards September - October 215, Sun Quan assembles a forwarding of several ten thousands of men to besiege Hefei again, but its countryside is unfruitful. Whereas it raises the camp, it is attacked by the army of the generals Zhang Liao, Li Dian and Yue Jin. Sun Quan is exceeded by the events and misses little being made kill, in front of defending oneself with its halberd.
According to the Memories of the river Jiangzi , its only exit point is a bridge on the river, but this one is destroyed at a distance of more than zhang (approximately 2,4 m). Its horse managed nevertheless to jump over the bridge, making it possible Sun Quan to flee the battle field.
Tender in Wei - News tention with ShuIn November 216, CAD CAD, now king of Wei, prepares a new campaign against Sun Quan, and in February 217, attacks Ruxu. Sun Quan decides to send an emissary to negotiate peace with CAD CAD. Marriages are then arranged between the two families to seal alliance.
In 219, the general Guan Yu badgers general CAD Ren, threatening to take vital strategic positions for CAD CAD. This last tries to divert the attention of Guan Yu by giving on the one hand the order to Sun Quan to attack Guan Yu, and other while trying to encourage Guan Yu to attack Sun Quan. Guan Yu refuses to be caught some in Sun Quan, but Sun Quan makes the first gesture and attacks Guan Yu in the month of December.
Sun Quan charges Lu Meng with conducting the campaign against Guan Yu, and this one marks many victories, forcing Guan Yu to beat a retreat and to find refuge in the district of Dangyang in the castle of May (south-eastern of current the Dangyang). The situation is shown then criticizes for Guan Yu and Sun Quan, which tested much respect for Guan Yu, offers to him to go. Guan Yu makes mine initially subject, then made attach banners and false soldiers to give the illusion of a large army protecting the castle, thus hoping during a time to cover its escape. Guan Yu is finally captured with his/her son Guan Ping in February 220 and both are carried out, making it possible Sun Quan to complete the conquest of the province of Jing.
To reward it for its victories, CAD CAD recommends Sun Quan to the emperor so that Sun Quan is named general of the white cavalry (zh-Hant 驃騎將軍). It also officializes it in its role of guard of Jing (zh-Hant 荊州牧), and the title of marquis de Nanchang confers to him (zh-Hant 南昌侯).
Foundation of the kingdom of WuIn March 220, CAD CAD dies and his/her son CAD pi succeeds to him. A few months later, it forces the Xiandi emperor to abdicate, putting an end to the Han dynasty, and proclaims first emperor of the dynasty CAD Wei. In May 221, he is imitated by Liu EIB which founds its own dynasty, that of the Shu Han.
Sun Quan, which had without success in the past tempted to push CAD CAD to proclaim emperor, transmits its congratulations to CAD pi.
Sun Quan re-elects the district of E of Gong' year (today Ezhou) in Wuchang, creates the prefecture of Wuchang starting from the districts of Wuchang, Xiazhi (today in the south-east of Yangxin), Xunyang (today in the north of Huangmei), Yangxin (today in the south-west of Yangxin), Chaisang (today in the south-west of Jiujiang) and settles there in September 221.
In December, CAD pi decrees in Sun Quan the title of king de Wu (zh-Hant 吳王) and transmits the nine sacraments to him.
CAD pi requires so that Sun Quan send to him his/her son Sun Deng with the capital like hostage, but Sun Quan refused, asserting that Sun Deng was still too young. Sun Quan names then Sun Deng its heir. According to the Memories of the river Jiangzi , in front of the refusal of Sun Quan, CAD pi requires of Sun Quan an imposing tribute: money, pearls, defenses of elephant, horns of rhinoceros, jade, pheasants, emeralds, ducks of Dou and chickens of Changming. Sun Quan estimates however that it is about a weak price to keep his son at his sides.
In February 222, Liu EIB launches an attack against Sun Quan. This last sends Lu Xun, which remains on the defensive several months, before suddenly passing to the offensive in July, and inflicts in Liu EIB a defeat crushing at the time the Bataille of Yiling.
In September, understanding that Sun Quan will not send an hostage to the capital, CAD pi sends several army to him to besiege its cities: CAD Xiu, Zhang Liao, and Zang Ba with Dongkou, CAD Ren in Ruxu, CAD Zhen, Xiahou Shang, Zhang He and Huang with Nanjun. On its side, Sun Quan dispatches Lu Fan with five armies and manages to resist each seat effectively. Meanwhile, the tribes Yue on the grounds of Sun Quan rebel, pushing Sun Quan to be requested from CAD pi to raise the seat. CAD pi agrees to raise the seat in the condition that Sun Quan renews its allegiance and that Sun Deng is sent to him like hostage.
Sun Quan refuses and declares its independence by proclaiming a new era then stops the diplomatic relations with Wei. The separation of China in three kingdoms and then effective. The situation with the face being done bad after the fall of Xuling, it sends an emissary at Liu EIB to start the negotiations for a new alliance.
Towards February - March 223, CAD pi sends CAD Zhen to try to capture Jiangling and to cut the territory of Sun Quan into two. Towards April - May, CAD Ren sends the general Cheng Diao with: 5000 men to try to cross the Ruxu river. Cepandant all the attempts of Wei fail and beat a retreat. Sun Quan is then pressed by its advisers so that he proclaims itself emperor, but Sun Quan refuses.
The Imperial Line of Wu
- Three Kingdoms of China and History of the Three kingdoms
- Dynasty Han
- Personalities of the kingdom of Wu
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