Sulawesi of the South
Sulawesi of the South ( Sulawesi Selatan ) is a province of the Republic of Indonesia, consisted the southernmost part of the southern peninsula of the island of Célèbes. It extends between 0°12' and 8° of southern latitude and between 116°48' and 122°36' of longitude is. It is bordered in the west by the Détroit of Makassar, in north by the provinces of Western Sulawesi and central Sulawesi, in the east by the Golfe of Bone and in the south by the Mer of Flora. Its capital is Makassar.
Its surface is of 62.483 km ². Its population was of 8.284.800 inhabitants in. Part of the initial province was detached from it in 2004 to form the province of Western Sulawesi.
Administrative divisionsThe province is divided into 20 Kabupaten (départments):
- Luwu Timur
- Luwu Utara
- Îles Pangkajene
- Sidenreng Rappang
- Tanned Toraja
PopulationThe province is inhabited by the ethnicities Bugis, Makassar, Mandar and Toraja. Their languages all belong to the group known as " Sulawesi en" Austronesian branch of the family Austronésien.
PrehistoryH.R. van Heekeren advances the theory which the south of Célèbes is inhabited since the end of the Pléistocène, that is to say between 50000 and 30000 before J. - C. ( The Stone Age off Indonesia , 1972). In other words, the first inhabitants of the south of Célèbes would be contemporary Homme of Wajak of Java Is, that of the Grande cave of Niah in the Sarawak (northern of Borneo) and of the vestiges of the cave of Tabon with Palawan (southern of the Filipino ). These hunters-gatherers were undoubtedly cousins of the ancestors of the inhabitants Autochtone S of the New Guinea and the current Australia.
One found carbonized rice remainders going back to 4000 to 2000 years before J. - C. a pottery suitable for the culture Austronésien does not appear around 3000 years before J. - C.
HistoryThe south of Célèbes was a long time the seat many small States, either bugis , or makassar . These two people had a reputation of frightening warriors. There exist manuscripts in the two languages, translations of treaties of artillery Spanish or Portuguese.
The existence of principalities bugis is attested as of XIVe century. Tomé Worse, a Portuguese apothecary who of 1512 to 1515 lived Malacca, conquered in 1511, note in his Suma Oriental that the trade with the south of Célèbes is carried out by of Bugis.
The kingdom makassar of Gowa will be most powerful of the States of the east indonésien in XVIe century. It begins its expansion about 1530 by conquering its various neighbors. When the Portuguese arrive in the area about 1540, Gowa is already a commercial power. They try to christianize the south of Célèbes, without success.
King de Gowa converts with Islam in 1605. The Bugis principalities, whose Kingdom of Bone, refuse to follow it. Campaigns of Gowa between 1608 and 1611 end up imposing Islam in the worldwide Bugis and Makassar. The VOC ( Vereenigde Oostindische Company or Dutch Company of the Eastern Indies) establishes a station with Gowa in 1609. The Alauddin sultan, not very eager to accept a monopoly of the Dutchmen, milked with Asian and European merchants. A fight begins between the two powers, stopped by treaties in 1637,1655 and 1660. The Hasanuddin sultan sends embassies to Mataram in Java, without result.
In 1660, prince Arung Palakka of the kingdom bugis of Bone, become vassal of Gowa, rebels. The revolt is repressed, but the rebels find refuge at the VOC with Batavia. In 1666, the VOC launches a fleet against Gowa, with on board the troops bugis and moluquoises. Hasanuddin ends up going in 1669. Bone and the other principalities bugis are freed from the suzerainty of Gowa. The VOC expels other Europeans of Gowa.
Arung Palakka becomes king de Bone. He is the most powerful man of the south of Célèbes until his death in 1696. He leads an army to Java to fight at the sides of the VOC. Its authoritative reign pushes sailors Bugis and Makassar to flee the south of Célèbes and to take share in wars in the remainder of the archipelago, the Malayan Péninsule and even with the Siam. Until the XVIIIe centuries, these pirates will be the plague of the archipelago. During the XVIIIe century, the VOC will often call upon soldiers bugis.
In 1811, during the Napoleonean Wars, whereas Louis Bonaparte is king de Hollande, the Dutch troops of Java goes to the English. Bone and other principalities of the south of Célèbes attack the English. When the Dutchmen return in the area, they are combined in Gowa to subject Bone in 1825. The constrained beginning of the War of Java Dutchmen to dismantle the south of Célèbes. Risings begin again. The conquest of the countries Bugis and Makassar will end only in 1906. In the tread, the Dutchmen subject the country Toraja .
LiteratureBugis and Makassar have literatures dependant between them, in prose and worms. They used a writing different from the Javanese E and derived from an Indian prototype. The work most known, in particular since its setting in scene by Bob Wilson in 2004, is the epopee bugis I Galigo .
The two people have chronicles which, contrary to the babad Bali are born and Javanese and with the hikayat Malayan are, avoid the mythological or legendary elements, except for an introduction in the form of myths founders. They are thus a priori an invaluable historical source. Unfortunately, the dates are rare there. This absence is compensated by the existence of newspapers detailed held by the kings and the dignitaries of high ranking at the beginning of the XVIIe century. This tradition is unknown elsewhere in the archipelago indonésien.
The countries Bugis, Makassar and MandarMakassar, the capital of the province, was in XVIe century more the great power maritime of the east indonésien, holding head with the expansionist and hegemonic aimings, initially of the Portuguese, then of the Dutch.
The Bugis and the Makassar remained a seafaring nation. Formerly, they went until on the northern coast of the Australia, which they call Marage , to fish the Holothurie or trepang . Their two-masters phinisi continue to furrow the inland seas of Indonesia, transporting island to island various goods and constituting the last merchant navy with veil of the world.
Bambapuang : 20 km of Enrekang, a stage on the road of Makassar to the country Toraja, the village of Bambapuang are located within a splendid framework.
- Bantimurung: To 41 km in the north of Makassar the reserve of Bantimurung is, which has a water fall and very beautiful specimens of butterflies.
Bira : Bira, to 197 km of Makassar, has a very beautiful beach, where one can practice the snorkeling and the diving. Not far with broad the island of Selayar is.
Bulukumba : In the neighborhoods of this small town to 146 km of Makassar on the east coast, many villages bugis and makassar are, with their houses on traditional piles and their shipyards. Beautiful beaches are found.
Caves of Leang-Leang: The area in the neighborhoods of the village of Leang-Leang, 1 hour from road in the north of Makassar, is covered with hills limestones to the many caves. Some of them contain strange sculptures in the stone representing of the hands and wild boars. It is thought that they are 5.000 years old of age, therefore former on arrival of the Austronésiens 4.000 years ago from Philippines.
Makassar : The city sheltered one of the eleven fortresses built by kings de Gowa. Built in 1545 pennies Tuni Pallanga, the 10th sovereign of Gowa, it was renamed Fort Rotterdam by the Dutchmen after the capitulation of Gowa in 1667. Those added buildings to him. Today, Benteng Makassar shelters a museum and an academy of dance and music.
Avoid-Avoids: Stage on the road of Makassar to the Toraja country, Avoid-Avoids have many houses bugis on pile. One there trouveun museum.
Polewali : To 246 km in the north of Makassar, Polewali, capital of the Mandar country, famous for its silk sarongs are called " sarung Mandar " and its artisanant of cane. One goes in the small islands not far to broad in fifteen minutes from fishing vessel. These islands have beautiful beaches.
Sengkang : Capital of the country Wajo, it is also famous for its weaving of silk. The inhabitants are Bugis. Not far the lake Tempe is.
Soppeng : It is another center of weaving of silk, to 240 km in the north of Makassar.
Sungguminasa : To 11 km in the south of Makassar, it is there that the old palate of the sultans of Gowa is, today a museum. The tombs of Hasanuddin, largest of the kings de Gowa (1629-1690), and other sovereigns, are in Sungguminasa.
The country TorajaIn Southern Célèbes also the Toraja, known live for their houses with the roof in the shape of boat, and their single funerary rites. They call their country Tana Toraja' .
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