The Sudan is an Eastern European country of the Africa, largest of the continent in surface. Bordered by the Libya and the Egypt in north, the Red Sea, the Érythrée and the Ethiopia in the east, the Kenya, the Uganda and the Democratic republic of Congo in the south, the Central African Republic, the Chad in the west, its name comes from the Arab balad have-sūdaan , which means “Country of the blacks literally”. The two official languages of the country are the Arab and the English, auquelles are added other languages of which most important are the Dinka, the Peul and the Nuer. It should be noted that has this day a humane catastrophe place in the area of Darfur has to see too
See also: Civil war in Darfur
Historydetailed Article: History of Sudan
- 1885 : Mahdi and British empire
1956 : Independence and civil war
1969: Coup d'etat of the Colonel Nimeiri
1971 : Communist coup d'etat and restoration of Nimeiri
1983 : The war of religion
This decision is the element release of a civil war which opposes Government (GOS) to groups armed with the South Sudan. This conflict is generally analyzed like a war of religion between North - Islamique - and the South - Christian. If this religious dimension exists certainly, the consecutive release of the civil war to setting-up testifies some to the Charia by the government of North, it does not remain about it less than it is to be moderated, the South being minoritairement Christian and rather Animiste. They are thus rather two cultures, a tribal traditionalist in the South and a arabo-Moslem woman in the north, who are opposed. One can analyze also there an opposition between the Center and the periphery, explaining thus also the engines of the conflicts to the Darfur, the west of the country, and in Béjaland, in the east of the country.
1985 : Coup d'etat of General AD-Dahab
1989 : Coup d'etat of the General to el-Béchir
The civil war moved more than 4 million inhabitants of the South and makes 2 million deaths. Some fled in cities of the South like Juba , others walked on towards north to Khartoum or took the way of adjoining countries like the Ethiopia, the Kenya, the Uganda or the Egypt. These people could not produce food or earn money to nourish themselves, and malnutrition and the famine were spread. The lack of investment in the South also led so that the international humanitarian organizations call a “lost generation”, badly educated without access to the basic care, and great chances to find an employment productive that it is in the South or North.
Rebellion of 2003The peace talks between the rebels of the South and the government made notable progress in 2003 and with the beginning of the year 2004, even if fixings would have still occurred in certain southernmost areas.
A new rebellion in the Western province of the Darfur began at the beginning of 2003. The government and the rebels were shown atrocities during this war. In February 2004, the government proclaimed its victory over the rebellion but the rebels say to keep the control of the rural areas and certain sources indicate that engagements continue at many places. The militia Janjawid S are shown massacre of more than 50.000 people, the conflict in 3 years having made more than 300.000 died and 3 million moved and taken refuge, according to certain estimates.
See also: Civil war in Darfur
Peace agreement of 2005The January 9th 2005, an peace agreement was signed in Nairobi between John Garang (APLS) and the vice-president Ali Osmane Taha, representing the Sudanese government. It puts an end to 21 years of civil war between the State, dominated by the Moslems and the Christian militiamans of Garang. This agreement envisages a mode of 6 years autonomy in South-Sudan, period at the conclusion which a referendum of self-determination will be organized.
The July 9th 2005, the new constitution, elaborate thanks to the agreements of Nairobi, is applied and allows the return of the movement of John Garang Khartoum. A government of national union is set up for this transitional period.
The July 31st 2005, John Garang dies in the accident of the helicopter Ugandan which transported it, in the south of Sudan. That causes several days of riots in the capital like in Juba between the partisans of Garang and those of gouvernment. The partisans of the former chief rebels John Garang do not believe indeed in the official thesis of the government according to which the helicopter was victim of engineering problems. They start riots in Khartoum, causing the reprisals of northerner militants. These violences make, according to the assessment from the Sudanese Red Crescent, 130 died and more than 350 wounded.
Policydetailed Article: Political of Sudan
Of 1983 with 1997, the country was divided into five areas to north and three in the south, each one directed by a military governor. The regional Parliaments were suspended after the military coup d'etat of the April 6th 1985. The revolutionary Conseil was abolished in 1996 and the Islamic National front with the capacity took the name of National congress. After 1997, the regional administrative structures were reformed towards a system of 26 States. The members of the regional executives are named by the president. The budget of the States is entirely depend on the central capacity of Khartoum.
Geographydetailed Article: Geography of Sudan
Sudan is located in the north of the Africa, in edge of the Red Sea, between the Egypt and the Érythrée. It is crossed right through by the the Nile. With a surface of 2.505.810 km ², it is the largest country of the African continent. The country is a very large Plaine surrounded in the east and in the west by Montagne S. the climate is there tropical in the desert south and in north, with the Rain season of April to October. The turning into a desert which extends towards the south and erosion from the grounds prevail on the country.
Administrative divisionsdetailed Article: Subdivisions of Sudan
Sudan is divided into 26 States or wilayat
Economydetailed Article: Économie of Sudan
- agriculture is the economic main activity of the country.
- the Livestock, the second of the African continent, is at the base of an intense clandestine traffic with the adjoining countries.
- the oil exploitation started in the south of the country and modifies the economic conditions of the country.
Demographydetailed Article: Démographie of Sudan
- Lwo S belongs to the nilotic group.
Culturedetailed Article: Culture of Sudan
Tayeb Saleh is one of the principal faces of the Sudanese and Arab literature.
Official languagesThe official languages of the Republic of Sudan are Arabic and English. according to article 8 of Constitution of 2005:
All the languages autochtones of Sudan are national languages and must be respected, developed and promoted;
- the Arab language is the national language largely spoken in Sudan;
- Arabic, as a principal language at the national level, and English will be the official working languages of the national government and the languages of teaching for higher education;
- In addition to Arabic and English, the legislature of any level of government infranational can adopt another national language like the working language official complementary to its level;
- It will have there no discrimination against the use of Arabic or English on any level of government or teaching.
CodesSudan has as codes:
- HS, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- SD, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- .sd, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- SDN, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- SDN, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- ST, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- KNOWN, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- CUS, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- CUS, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
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