Student Mode of social security
The student Régime of social security (RSSE) indicates the system of social security applied in France to the student S. Cependant, because of the characteristics of its members of National Insurance Scheme, the RSSE has a competence less broad than that of the other modes of social security in France: it needs to manage neither the industrial accidents, nor old age. The student mode of social security thus manages the health insurance students. Its management is entrusted to mutual S which act by Public service delegation.
Presentation of the RSSE
General termsThe student mode of social security is obligatory for all the students provided education for in an establishment of higher education, having between 16 and 28 years, and not profiting from a special diet by a member of their family.
AgeThe RSSE applies to the students from 16 to 28 years. However, the students of more than 28 years can be affiliated to the RSSE under conditions. This provision aims primarily the Thésard S.
The age is entered during the academic year: this one is held from October 1st to September 30th of the following year. Thus, it is the age reached by the student during this period which is used as reference. For example, a student who is 20 years old on September 25th, 2004 is regarded as being 20 years old during the academic year 2003-2004, but will reach blackjack years during the academic year 2004-2005.
Statute of studentThe RSSE applies to the students of higher education, i.e. of a university, an university, a preparatory class (CPGE) or a higher technical section (STS).
Special dietsEven if they have the studied statute, certain young people are not obligatorily subjected to the RSSE because they can remain under the mode of their parents. It is the case for example children of paid the SNCF, of EDF, not-medical liberal professions, clerks of notaries… These special diets preserve the student until a certain age (between 20 and 28 years) until to which it is not obliged to affiliate itself to the RSSE.
However, for the majority of the students, whose parents are affiliated with the general scheme of social security of the workers or the agricultural social mode, the affiliation with the RSSE is obligatory and takes precedence over a possible possible affiliation with the mode of the parents.
The children of people unemployed persons must affiliate themselves with the RSSE.
Special casesCertain students do not have to affiliate themselves with the RSSE:
- the students who are paid during all the academic year and who carry out a minimum number of hours. It is their social security of paid which covers them.
- the married or pacsés students whose social security is dealt with by its spouse or partner.
ContributionThe amount of the obligatory contribution to the student mode of social security is fixed each year by the qualified ministry. It is identical whatever the accounts center chosen by the student. It is paid with the establishment of higher education which transfers it with URSSAF.
The students of less than 20 years during the academic year do not pay a contribution. The stock exchange students do not pay a contribution. The students who are registered in several higher educational establishments pay their contribution only in only one establishment.
Two centers of social securityThe management of the RSSE was entrusted since 1948, date of its creation, with mutual insurance companies coeds. They are nonlucrative associations with goal managed by students elected in their center. These mutual insurance companies are managers of the Public service of social security, this task their is entrusted by an enabling delivered by the State.
Currently, two network are entitled to manage the security system social of the students:
- the network of the companies mutualists regional coeds (SMER) since 1972,
- the mutual insurance company of the students (LMDE or M.E.) since 2000.
Historically, the Mutuelle main road of the students of France (MNEF) was the first mutual insurance company coed in France. It was created at the same time as the RSSE, in 1948, and was during all its existence the majority mutual insurance company near the students. Following the “Scandal of the MNEF”, the mutual insurance company was seen withdrawing its approval and was liquidated in 2000.
The rights of the members of National Insurance Scheme, the rates of refunding, the rules of Third-paying, the access terms, the amount of contribution etc, are identical in the two centers. These rules are fixed at the national level by the National bank of health insurance and are imposed on the mutual insurance companies manager of the RSSE.
The two centers is different by the services which they propose to the students, their partnerships, but especially their operating process. The mutual insurance company of the students has an national organization, whereas the SMER form a network of regional mutual insurance companies.
History of the student mode of social security
See also: History of the mutualism studied
Except for the the Alsace-Moselle which profited from a mode of social security since 1911, in France, the Social security was defined during the Second world war, by the National council of Resistance. It was created by the ordinance of the October 4th 1945.
In the beginning, it was planned to attach the students to the mode of social security of the workers. However, of the internal discussions within the majority union of the students, UNEF, resulted in asking for the creation of a mode specific to the students and whose management would be entrusted to them.
The law of the September 23rd 1948 created the student mode of social security and envisaged to entrust management of it to mutual S of students. UNEF creates the Mutuelle main road of the students of France. Two another mutual insurance companies are create: the General mutual company of the Lorraine students (MGEL) and the Mutual insurance company of the Marseilles students (MEM). The MEM quickly integrated the MNEF.
The War of Algeria and the events of May 1968 give birth to from the oppositions between student trade unions. These institutions politicize themselves. With the beginning of the year 1970, the monopoly of MNEF on the national territory is disputed. The MNEF is the subject internal quarrels and of power struggles. Associations coeds which are not recognized or more in its standpoint and its intrigues wish to have an alternative mutual insurance company. It is the origin of the creation of SMER.
SMER were created by association students between 1971 and 1974. Creations are done at the regional level, according to the means gathered by associations coeds and with the wire of enabling delivered by the government. It is this which explains why today still SMER are a network of regional mutual insurance companies and not only one national structure.
In 1982, a report/ratio of the critical Court of Auditors the management of MNEF. It is the beginning of the Affaire of the MNEF which was completed only in 2006. In spite of attempts to rectify the management of the MNEF, this one sees themselves withdrawing its enabling to manage the student mode of social security and is then dissolved in 2000.
A new mutual insurance company is then creates to replace MNEF. It is the Mutual insurance company of the students (LMDE). It east creates by UNEF-ID, FAGE and UNEF-SE by taking again part of the organization, personnel and buildings of the MNEF to launch out.
Critics of the security system social of the students
See also: Reflections on the mutualism studied
The current system of management of the RSSE makes the object of criticism.
The division of the management of the RSSE between two operators is the principal point of criticism. Indeed, this situation is shown to create a competition between the LMDE and the SMER. So some consider that it is about a healthy emulation , that created of the important tensions between the two operators. These competitions tarnish the image of the student mode of social security.
In addition, the presence of two operators is a single thing. No other security system social in France functions thus. Also, this duality is shown to involve superfluous costs. One of the points which concentrates criticisms is that the mutual insurance companies coeds make publicity to obtain their associates. It is a single situation for a mode of social security which is a legal requirement. However, these overcosts do not mean however that management is bad. One of the SMER, the SMEBA, is quoted besides in the social security offices best managed.
The image of the mutual insurance companies coeds was also tarnished by the businesses. The principal one is that which related to MNEF in the years 1990. The mutual insurance companies coeds are subjected to the control of the Controlling authority of the insurances and the mutual insurance companies (ACAM).
Although it are at the origin of the RSSE, the student trade unions strongly criticize the actual position of the system. Thus, UNEF always was against the creation of a second network of mutual insurance companies (SMER) and still call with a unification of the mode. The duality of operator is unanimously criticized, but the solutions to be brought there divergent. Some propose the handing-over of the RSSE at the organizations managing the general scheme, others require that the whole of the mode be given to only one mutual insurance company, as before 1971. These positions do not have to prevent the majority of the trade unions from supporting the creation of a new mutual insurance company in 2000 after the disappearance of MNEF.
Lastly, this presence of the trade unions is it even the object of criticism. Indeed, they are power struggles between student trade unions which had led associations coeds to request the creation of one second mutual insurance company other than from MNEF. Then, in the Affaire of the MNEF, it was recognized that the mutual insurance company paid fictional jobs with the profit of the trade unions CFDT and FO. This business took an eminently political turn with the resignation of Dominique Strauss-Kahn of the government of Lionel Jospin in 1999. One thus carried out a political cataloguing of the mutual insurance companies coeds. All in all, the LMDE is considered of sensitivity close to the left . Concerning the SMER, their independence from/to each other does not allow such a clear cataloguing. Some are considered of sensitivity close to the right . The SMER were created, and always assert, a goal to be Apolitique S.
The bonds between associations coeds and the mutual insurance companies coeds are also the object of criticism. Within the framework of their communication campaign, it is frequent that mutual insurance companies sponsor associations or corpos coeds. One then notes sometimes a return on behalf of these associations. For example, the UNEF gives regularly its support for LMDE in the files of inscriptions of the universities. These associations are however not guided solely by one community of interests, but also by divisions of values.
In addition, all the mutual insurance companies are managed by elected administrators. These elected officials must be at least for two thirds of the students. Consequently, it is frequent to find among these student elected officials of the people who invest themselves in addition in associations coeds or trade unions. Thus, the leading authorities of the LMDE are made up for their very large majority of students elected of the UNEF. The students can also invest in organizations not only coed. It was the case of a delegate of one of the SMER which was also responsible for a local cell of a political party.
- Mutualism studied
- Company mutualist regional coed
- Mutual main road of the students of France
- Social protection and health of the students on the site of the Minister of education main road
- Social security coed
- To include/understand the Social security coed
|Random links:||Ciudades del Sur Corea | Knokke-Heist | Taroudant | Fromentine | The Ship | Erenhot | Bassar|