Student (fem. coed) is a word derived from Latin studere who means “to endeavor to learn something”. However, the term does not apply to any person who learns. One generally holds it to the people integrated in a school course.
In many countries, in particular French-speaking, the use of the word student is even more restricted. Most usually, it nominates the persons engaged in a course of Higher education. In order to be exhaustive, it would be righter to associate it with any person according to a course of initial training post-secondary (raising or not of higher education). One thus distinguishes it from the schoolboy, the schoolboy, the Lycéen or from the Apprenti.
One can thus make this fundamental distinction in the world of teaching between the raises which attends primary school education or secondary, and the student which attends an establishment of higher education or post-secondary.
In the very great majority of the states, schooling is obligatory until an age fixed by the law (generally between 15 and 18 years), consequently the near total of the people have one day the quality of pupil or student.
The November 17th is the international day of the student.
The statute of studentThere does not exist international statute of the student. Each state fixes the way in which it manages this population. However, certain transnational organizations set up certain milked common. It is thus of the Association ISIC, leant with the UNESCO, which delivers charts ISIC (International Student Identity Card) which are recognized in the near total of the countries like a valid document in proof of the statute of student.
Certain organizations coeds developed charters on the statute of the student by defining his rights and its duties. The first case is in France in 1946 with the Charte of Grenoble created by UNEF, then this idea will be taken up in 1946 with Prague by the International union of the Students. Then with Beirut, national union of the students of the Arab country created a charter being largely inspired some.
According to the countries, the establishment of higher education can have various names: University or Faculty in the French-speaking states, College in the Anglo-Saxon states, School for the private or specialized structures of teaching (Schools of engineer and trade in particular). Certain higher formations can be exempted in the establishment of secondary education, like the sections of high-level technicien (BTS) or the preparatory classes than the universities (CPGE (in France.
Finally there exists a certain number of courses post-secondaries which do not concern higher education since they are accessible without poavoir obtained the vat, but only on condition level and/or old; for example, schools of artistic formation, or schools of health whose level of entry is lower than the vat or without reference compared to this one. The minister of education main road defines as criterion of census in the central base of the establishments (ECB) the fact that the school attendance is compulsory and that the school course is annual equivalent full-time (i.e. correspondent at one or more school years and of which the hours of teaching plus required personal work correspond to a full-time formation, estimated to 600 H per annum).
The access to higher educationThe access terms with higher education differ depending on the states. The majority of the systems require a preliminary diploma: baccalaureat in France, Have-level in England or Abitur in Germany. But the selection at the entry of the establishments varies much.
In France, the access to the university is of right for the holders of the baccalaureat or of DAEU. There is selection, except for certain medical dies, and of the university of Paris-Dauphine which received a special permit by decree. The access is also open in Belgium and in Quebec.
On the other hand, in the Anglo-Saxon states, and particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States, the selection at the entry of higher education is important. A selection with also place, in the majority of the countries, with the entry of the universities , i.e. of public institution or private of teaching which do not have the statute of Université. There exist three principal systems of selection:
- the selection on file , it is made within sight of the parts of a file (generally filled by the candidate) by a commission. This system proposes a selection according to the school results of the candidate and his last experiments.
- the selection on maintenance , it consists of a meeting between the candidate and one or more inspectors. The duration is extremely variable: if the majority of the talks last between 15 and 45 minutes, some can reach four hours. This type of selection makes it possible to evaluate the motivation, the quickness of mind and the communication of the candidate. The selection on maintenance frequently intervenes in complement of a selection on file.
- the selection on contest , it is done by means of one or several tests (often several) mainly written, which will be the subject of a notation. This system proposes knowledge of the candidate, his capacity to analyze a subject in a defined amount of time, and its reactional qualities. The selection on contest can be organized in two levels: a first series of written tests which one says then admissibility , and for those which made a success of one second series of oral tests there known as of admission .
- finally, it should be noted that the drawing lot is sometimes used to decide between two candidates, but really it is not a question of a system of selection, it is only additional.
The cost of the access to the studies can also constitute a barrier. If it is moderated in the universities Frenchwoman and in Quebec, it is very high in the United Kingdom and the United States, like in certain private establishments of higher education. This obliges sometimes the families to save many years to give access to higher education their children. Mechanisms of assistances were however developed, two prevail: the purses , of public or deprived initiative, generally allotted on criteria of merit; and ready students refundable at the end of the studies, even non-repayable (under conditions), with moderate or non-existent interest rate. Certain schools finally remunerate their students.
Evenings CoedsThe evenings coeds bring together the students of an establishment, a campus or a city to have fun the festival. This practice is widespread in the majority of the States. They are generally held in week; in France, the fetish day is Thursday. Among these many festivals, some are particular, in fact the evenings of integration mark the arrival of a new promotion of students. If the festival exceeds one evening one will be able to speak then about day of integration , even of weekend , week or training course of integration.
In Belgium, the festivals coeds are very widespread and constitute a folklore with whole share. More specifically called Guindaille, it leaves it in certain cities several every evening, as with Leuwen-the-New. The students have their own rooms, generally designed to support dirtiness and to resist vandalisms. Let us quote the Bunker with Namur or Put it and the Bold Cock (among ten others) with Leuwen-the-New.
The hazing marks the beginning of the year in general and aim at placing the students lately made (called freshers ) in situations cocasses and humorous. The goal is generally to create bonds of solidarity between the members of the new promotion. This exacerbates the Team spirit. However of many skids, which did not lead that a free humiliation of the fresher has, led certain countries to prohibit it.
In France, for example, the penal code which defines the hazing as:
the fact for a person of bringing others, against its liking or not, to undergo or make acts humiliating or degrading at the time of demonstrations or meetings related to the mediums school and socioeducationalthe article of the Penal code French punishes it sorrows being able to reach six months of Emprisonnement and 7.500 euros of Amende.
In Belgium, the hazing is called '' Baptême '', it is tolerated and framed by the academic authorities. Around this Baptême revolves a whole student's folklore variable according to the establishments.
The practice of the hazing is not reserved to the students: it is frequent in the army corps, and occasional in the companies.
One gives various names to the student lately promoted: freshers, freshman, newbie…
See also: Movement studied
The students are also known for their trade-union and political activism.
They were in the beginning and contributed to many protest movements. One can in particular quote:
- In France, events of May 1968 and more recently the Movement anti-CPE
- In Hungary, the Insurrection of Budapest in 1956
- In Czechoslovakia, the Spring of Prague in 1968
- In China, the Manifestations of the place Tian' anmen in 1989
OthersThere can be various systems which dissociate the students of the other socioprofessional categories. Thus, in France, the students have a mode of social security which is clean for them.
Simple: Student Zh-yue: 學生
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