Stockholm is the Capitale of the Sweden.
Located at the edge of the the Baltic, the city is built partly on several islands, with the mouth of the Lac Mälar, which was worth to him, following the example other cities European, its nickname of Venice of North (in addition also given to Bruges, in Belgium, and with Amsterdam, the Netherlands).
The town of Stockholm ( Stockholms stad ) or more officially, the common of Stockholm ( Stockholms Kommun ) strictly speaking account 788 269 inhabitants (June 2007) (see also the articles on the Town of Stockholm and the Large Stockholm ).
GeographyIf Stockholm were founded on the small island of Gamla Stan (old city) located exactly between the Lac Mälar and the the Baltic, it then developed in North where one finds from now on Norrmalm and Östermalm, and in the south towards Södermalm.
On the whole, it extends on 14 islands, making water an omnipresent element. The city counts 53 Pont S which make it possible to circulate between the various districts.
Stockholm has important a archipelago, made up of thousands of islands, paradise for the inhabitants of the city who like to go there the weekend.
The coordinates of Stockholm are: .
Climate of Stockholm east of the continental type, because of very septentrional Latitude, and of the relative distance of the Atlantic Ocean. The seasons are very marked with cold winters and soft summers with heats, this being due to the great difference in the duration of the day between the Solstice in summer (18 hours of day) and the winter solstice (6 hours of day). The records of temperature in Stockholm are of 38 °C to the maximum and -32 °C at least. The number of hours of sunning is 1800 hours.
Typical temperatures for each season: Winter: of -7 °C with 2 °C Spring: from 5 with 15 °C Summer: from 20 with 25 °C Fall: from 5 with 18 °C
PolicyStockholm is one of the 290 Communes of Sweden, and is the capital of the Comté of Stockholm. This last is in load of the health policies and transport of the city, as well as principal arts centres.
The commune is then divided since 2007 into 14 districts, which have the responsibility for the elementary schools, the social assistance, the leisures and the local cultural means. Current the mayor of Stockholm east Kristina Axén Ohlin (since 2006), of the Moderate .
Beginnings of StockholmThe first mention of the town of Stockholm goes back to 1252. The city is reduced then to the small island of Gamla Stan ( Old city). It would have been founded by Birger Jarl, in order to protect the Sweden from invasions by foreign fleets and in order to put an end to plunderings of which were victims of the cities like Sigtuna located on the lake Mälaren. The first built building is a fort which controls the sea traffic between the Baltic and the lake Mälaren. Under the influence of Magnus Ladulås, Stockholm thrives thanks to its commercial relations with Lübeck. It forms then part of the Hanseatic League. In 1270, Stockholm is described by documents like a true city, and in 1289 it is already more the big city of Sweden. The first reliable estimate of its size goes back to the 15th century. It then gathers approximately a thousand of households and for five to six thousand inhabitants.
Union of KalmarIt is only in 1419 that Stockholm is proclaimed capital of Sweden. Its strategic position, as its economic weight make of it an important place in the relations between the Danish kings of the Union of Kalmar and the movement of Swedish independence during the 15th century. She will see many battles being held, in particular the battle of Brunkeberg gained against the king of the Denmark Christian Ier by Sten Sture old the in 1471, and the Blood bath of Stockholm which will take place in 1520 under the orders of Christian II of Denmark, putting a term at the union of Kalmar.
The period of VasaIn 1521, Gustav Vasa makes its entry in Stockholm and sign the beginning of a new era for the Sweden. Stockholm increases and extends beyond Stadsholmen on Södermalm and Norrmalm. In 1600, it counts ten thousand inhabitants.
At the 17th century Stockholm becomes a European city of scale. Between 1610 and 1680 its population is multiplied by six. Ladugårdslandet , now called Östermalm as well as the island of Kungsholmen is then attached to the city. In 1628, the Vasa runs in Stockholm. Shortly after rules are founded which give to Stockholm a monopoly on the exchanges between the foreign traders and the Scandinavian territories. At that time are built many castles and of palates, of which the house of the nobility ( riddarhuset ) and at the 18th century the royal palace.
After the War of the North which involves the destruction partial of the city, Stockholm sees its growth slowing down. It preserves however its role of political capital of Sweden, and under the reign of Gustave III of Sweden it affirms its cultural superiority. The royal opera is an good example of the architecture of this time.
1800-1900At the beginning of the 19th century, Stockholm still loses its economic influence. Norrköping becomes the principal industrial city of the country, and Gothenburg becomes a port impossible to circumvent thanks to its localization on the the North Sea. In the second part of the century, Stockholm finds its role of leader on the economic plan with the appearance of new industries, and becomes an important center for the trade and the services, as well as the principal main door of Sweden.
Its population grows then in a very important way from a strong immigration. At the end of the century, only 40% of the inhabitants of the city were born there. Districts then start to develop beyond the limits of Stockholm, in the countryside and on the coasts. It is as at that time as the city increases its central role in education and the culture, with the opening of many universities, like the Karolinska Institut.
20th centuryDuring the 20th century, Stockholm rehabilitates most of its center town, then composed of narrow and tangled up streets which pose problem as circulation increases. The communal authorities prohibit there the restoration of the buildings and buy them on a whole zone close to the central station, of Hötorget to Sergels torg, during first half of the century. Of 1945 with 1967 the zone shaven then is rebuilt, with broad malls as well as Gratte-ciel S.
At the end of the century, Stockholm is a modern, cosmopolitan city and very advances some in the technological fields. In 1923 the government of the commune moves in new the town hall. The subway of Stockholm east built starting from 1950, and the district of Kista now became an important center for new technologies.
Recent eventsIn 1986 the Prime Minister Olof Palme is cut down in full street, and in 2003 the Foreign Minister Anna Lindh is assassinated in the department store Nordiska Kompaniet.
Stockholm was named European Capitale of the culture in 1998.
Demographic trendsThe table and the curve below recall the demographic trends of the commune of Stockholm of 1570 to our days.
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CultureCapital of Sweden, Stockholm shelters most of the principal cultural places of Sweden, whose Théâtre S, Musée S or opera S. In Stockholm and its surroundings are two sites registered on the Liste of the world heritage of UNESCO, the Château of Drottningholm and the cemetery of Skogskyrkogården. Stockholm in addition was capital European of the culture in 1998.
MuseumsStockholm counts nearly a hundred museums. Some of these museums which were free for the majority became paying. Most famous are the Musée Vasa, Skansen, the historical museum, the museum of modern art, the national museum of beautiful arts, the Swedish Muséum of natural history or the Scandinavian Musée.
Classical musicStockholm has two orchestras of reputation: the royal Philharmonic orchestra of Stockholm and the Symphony orchestra of the Swedish Radio.
SportStockholm sheltered the Olympic Games of summer of 1912, and has with the Olympic stadium, Globen and Råsunda of the important arenas for the practice of the Football, the Hockey or of the Bandy. The principal football clubs of the city are Djurgårdens IF and AIK Solna. The presence of many water levels is favourable with the practice of the iceskate in period Hiver nale.
Stockholm also accommodated in 1990 the first world equestrian Jeux.
Principal districtsThe principal part of Stockholm makes up of several districts which constitute as many places to visit.
The old city, Gamla Stan is located mainly on the island of Stadsholmen. It consists of narrow lanes and one finds there many places of interest like the royal palace, the Musée Nobel, the German church, Storkyrkan or the Maison of the nobility.
Djurgården, one of the islands of Stockholm, gathers principal tourist attractions of the city. One finds there the Musée Vasa, Skansen, the Scandinavian Musée, the amusement park of Gröna Lund as well as a large park.
Science and infrastructures
TransportStockholm is the central point of the system of Railroad Swedish. The city has an international airport, Arlanda, like two less important airports: Skavsta and Brominated.
Stockholm is also a important port, with connections in particular towards the towns of Helsinki, Saint-Pétersbourg, Turku and Tallinn. The principal companies of ferries are Viking Line, Silja Line and Tallink.
The Public transport are of a large variety. A subway ( Tunnelbana ) serves the principal places of the city and comprises three lines, of the Tram-train S ( pendeltåg , roslagsbana and saltsjöbana ) make it possible to rejoin the suburbs on long distances (a hundred kilometers of north in the south). There are also Tramway S ( tvärbana , nockebybana , lidingöbana and djurgårdslinje ), as well as a vast drunk network of . The equipment is held by the company Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SSL, property of the Comté of Stockholm), and is exploited and maintained by subcontractors like Connex. Connections in Bateau are also ensured towards the archipelago.
August 1st, 2007 was founded in a permanent way a system of urban Péage similar to that of London. The final introduction of this system, tried out January in July 2006, was the advisory referendum object of the inhabitants of Stockholm on September 17th, 2006. The main aims are to reduce the congestion S and the pollution generated by the road traffic. The network of bus was reinforced on this occasion.
EconomyThe head office of more than 40% of the Swedish companies is located at Stockholm, which is the center economic and financial of Sweden. Stockholm has some companies of high technology, like Ericsson, Electrolux or AstraZeneca. The district of Kista is one of the European centers most dynamic for the Technologies information and the communication.
The Tourisme has become for a few years a very important activity for the town of Stockholm with seven million visitors per annum.
FormationStockholm has 16 universities and Université S, of which Stockholm School off Economics (SE), the Karolinska Institut, the Université of Stockholm and the royal institute of technology. Who more is, their number is expanding, as the creation of Södertörns Högskola shows it, in southern suburbs (Flemingsberg).
royal academies are also located at Stockholm, like the royal Académie of sciences of Sweden and the Swedish Académie which amongst other things distribute every year the Nobel Prize.
Famous charactersThe following characters all are born in Stockholm.
- Benny Andersson (1946 -), singer
- Ingrid Bergman (1915 - 1982), actress
- Folke Bernadotte (1895 - 1948), diplomatic
- Charles-Louis Didelot (1767 - 1837), dancer
- Christer Fuglesang (1957 -), spationaut
- Greta Garbo (1905 - 1990), actress
- Lars Gyllensten (1921 -), novelist
- Carl Larsson (1852 - 1919), painter
- Sven Lindqvist (1932 -), writer
- Yngwie Malmsteen (1963 -), guitarist
- Alfred Nobel (1833 - 1896), industrialist and scientific
- Ivar Fredholm (1866 - 1927), mathematician
- Rolf Sievert (1896 - 1966), physicist
- Annika Sörenstam (1970 -), player of golf
- Art Spiegelman (1948 -), author of cartoon
- August Strindberg (1849 - 1912), writer
- Emanuel Swedenborg (1688 - 1772), scientist, theologist and philosopher
- Marie Taglioni (1804 - 1884), ballerina
- Raoul Wallenberg (1912 - dubious date of death), diplomatic
- The Hellacopters (1994) - (2007) Group of Rock' roll
TwinningThe city is twinned with:
Stockholm is written and decided differently in other languages: Latin Holmia in , Stockholbma in same, Latvian Stokholma in , Estocolmo in Portuguese and Spanish, Lithuanian Stokholmas in , Tukholma in Finnish, Stokholmi in Meänkieli, Stokkhólmur in Icelandic, Italian Stoccolma in , Sztokholm in Polish, Stockgol' m (Стокгольм) in Russian, Sutokkuhorumu (ストックホルム) in Japanese, Sídégēěrmó (斯德哥尔摩) in Chinese. In English and German, Stockholm is written in the same way but decides slightly differently.
- Syndrome of Stockholm
- Olympic Games of summer of 1912
- Stockholm, album of the French singer Jean-Louis Aubert
- Annika Billström, mayor of 2002 to 2006
VisitSweden - the official site of the Swedish Office of Tourism
- the guide of Stockholm
- the official site of the city
Beats-smg: Stuokhuolms Be-X-old: Стакгольм Simple: Stockholm Zh-min-nan: Stockholm Zh-yue: 士多貢
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