See also: Belgium (homonymy), the United States (homonymy)
The the United States Belgium or State-Belgium-Plain (in Dutch: Verenigde Nederlandse Staten or Verenigde Belgische Staten ) is a confederation of Member States of the Austrian Netherlands, which were declared independent of the emperor Joseph II in 1790. Joseph II was the sovereign various countries, being at the same time Duc of the Brabant and of Limbourg, duke of Luxembourg (but Luxembourg never formed part of this State), Count de Flandre, count de Hainaut, count de Namur, Seigneur of Malines, lord of Tournai, etc
At the time, the word “Belgium” was used like Adjectif, meaning of the Netherlands (“ nederlands ” in Dutch) or of the Netherlands of the South (“ belgisch ”). Sometimes, in the plural, “Belgium” was used instead of “the Netherlands”.
Independence and Treated unionBetween 1787 and 1790 is held the Révolution brabançonne, in rejection of the reforms progressists of the emperor Joseph II. It is thus not related with the French revolution.
Carried out by Henri van der Noot, a member of the Chalk-linings of Brussels, the insurrectionists demolish the Austrians with Turnhout on October 27th, 1789, take Ghent on November 13rd, forcing with the exile the imperial regents Albert of Saxony-Teschen and his wife the archduchess Marie-Christine of Habsbourg-Lorraine. Van der Noot declared then the Brabant independent, and other provinces of the Austrian Netherlands followed the movement (except for Luxembourg).
The Treaty of union was signed with Brussels the January 11th 1790 by the deputies of nine states, in particular the States of the Brabant, Gueldres, Flandres, West-Flandres, Hainaut, Namur, Tournai, Tournésis (or Tournaisis) and Malines. It was however not signed by the Luxembourg, where the ducal authority of the emperor remained intact.
In parallel, in Principality of Liege, the situation is very different. Making following the Storming of the Bastille on July 14th, 1789, the Inhabitants of Li2ege obtain the end of the old mode. As of on August 18th, they are harnessed with the drafting of a constitution, after the catch of the town hall and the Citadel. And in 1790, the nation inhabitant of Li2ege contracts an alliance with thePlain ones. The Révolution inhabitant of Li2ege (fine of the Old Mode) thus does not have common points with the Révolution brabançonne. It is also different from the French revolution by its greater radicalism (see for example the Déclaration of the human rights and the citizen of Franchimont).
Causes and inspirationThe Revolution brabançonne or “Belgium” was rather preserving compared to the French revolution. Agitation was caused by the attempts of centralization and reform of Joseph II. The confederal union took as a starting point the abjuration in 1581 by which the seven United Provinces of the Netherlands of north made secession of their king, and of the declaration by which the thirteen the United States of America made the same thing in 1776. The width and the population of these three unions were at the time comparable.
Disappearance and consequenceIn the absence of international support, the Republic “Belgium” of the nine Provinces of the Netherlands of the South existed only during one year: as of December 1790, an Austrian imperial army took again the capacity for the new emperor Léopold II.
This last also intervened in Liege to restore the Old Mode and to restore the Prince-bishop Hoensbroeck. The revolutionists inhabitant of Li2ege take refuge then in France.
Although of short duration, this first revolution made it possible to the Belgians to know the first independence within the same nation. 40 years later, a second revolution took place, and led to the creation of the Belgium. The new state adopted like first flag that of thePlain ones.
- Proclamation of the States of Flanders of January 4th, 1790, declaring Dutch independence (; the declaration also exists in French)
- Acte of Union of the Provinces Belgium
- Traité union of the Provinces Belgium, of January 11th, 1790
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