See also: Standard
The word “ standard ”, like much of vexillologic terms, recovers different realities. Because being made fabrics, the vexillate ones were prone to great variations of form, measurements and of color, but also of use according to the century and the place.
At the 14th century, the limits of the feudal army (absenteeism, great limits in the time of the mobilization of the Ost, lack of combativeness) will carry out the princes guerrriers to develop a formed complementary army salaried soldiers. It is the birth of the professional army. The soldiers of this army cannot be assembled and follow the banner of a feudal ost to which they do not belong. One thus will extend a new type of vexillate - the standard - in front of them so that he recognize of them the form, the reasons and the colors. Whereas the feudal banners were almost always square or of a close form, the standard will be often with two points and will carry the personal marks of the lord - his badges or currencies - instead of his family emblems. The prince or the lord changed some at will, sometimes several times per annum, and they will not be taken again from one reign to another, in general.
The two systems being used jointly on the battle fields, they will be also sometimes raised together on the emblématique one domesticates of the prince. The Mordelaises doors of Renne S for example (15th century) carry on their stone prééminancière the armorial bearings of the dukes of Brittany framed of a square banner on a side and a standard of the other, thus insisting on the authority of the duke on all his troops.
There will be sometimes fusion of the two systems when one joins or mixes the family marks (reason for the banner) with the personal marks in long a standard-banner with two points. However this system will last little and at the 16th century already it étiole with the profit again.
EtymologyThe word Etendard is used for the first time in 1080 (estendard). It comes from francic the standhard, stable, fixes, inébranlable, word which will give then standard. it is composed of stand, action to be held upright and of hardware, hard, firm (cf English hardware or German binder, of the same direction).
Standard of the French ArmyThe standard is the badge of all the French regiments of assembled traditions (Cavalerie, Artillerie, Train). It bears in these folds on the avers the words “French Republic” and the name of the regiment. On the reverse are registered the words “Honor and Fatherland” followed by the names of battles in which the unité. was distinguished It is moreover small size and UNICEF on a pole shorter than the Drapeau.
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