The Sport is a term defining a great number of exercises, physics even intellectual of leisure. The sports are exerted in the form of individual or collective plays being able to give place to competitions.
The sport is a quasi universal phenomenon in time and space. The ancient Greece, the ancient Rome, Byzance, the medieval Occident then modern, but also the America précolombienne or the Asia, all are marked by the importance of the sport. Certain periods are especially marked by interdicts, as it is the case in Great Britain Moyen-âge with the modern Time.
What the sport?The term of " Sport" for root the word of Vieux French desport has which means “entertainment, physical pleasure or of the spirit”. While crossing the Handle, desport is moulted in sport and evacuates of its field the general concept of leisures to concentrate on the only physical-activities. The German language admits the sport term and its English definition in 1831; France makes use for the first time of it as of 1828. Thus, since then, the sport does not include any more the various board games or plays of the spirit which made the joy of a Gargantua. The multiplication of the sports, which does not go back to yesterday, poses problem with some.
Is it thus necessary to admit the contests of Chien S of shepherd like a sport? Vast problem for much, debate of rear-guard for others which group the sports in three main categories: the Olympic sports , not-Olympic sports having vocation to become Olympic, and the other sports says minor, of which the contest of sheepdogs. This last category appears heterogeneous, but the gasoline even sporting movement is not located there. Some then put the importance on the existence of competitions, but it is a false debate, because the sport of leisures remains sport.
History of the sportThe sport is a quasi universal phenomenon in time and in space, and, to take again a Byzantine maxim , “the people without sport is sad people”. Many phenomena which appear recent, accompany in fact the history by the sport since the origin: professionalism with doping, supporters with the problems of arbitration.
The Greece, Rome, Byzance, the medieval Occident then modern, but also the America précolombienne or the Asia, all is marked by the importance of the sport. Certain periods are especially marked by interdicts, as it is the case in Great Britain Moyen-âge at the time Moderne, but this permanent recall proves a thing: the sporting practice perdurait.
The power of the sporting movement is considerable today. An international federation like FIFA with the capacity to modify the payments and to require the application with whole planet as from an exact date. And no need with the FIFA to recall to the order Pierre, Paul or Jacques, because everyone follows the same payment. The sport thus proposes a first model of real universalization.
Contrary to this structure centralized with the Roman, let us note the existence of a more independent sporting movement, in particular with the the United States. NBA has particular rules and not question for it of being put under the cut of the International federation of basketball. Except for the Olympic Games, obviously, because in fact the FIBA is in load of the tests. Players NBA must then play according to the common rules with the rest of the world. The American Baseball is even more caricatural on this point, with the two leagues which clash for the trophy of the World Series: American and National do not have the same rules of the game!
The sport is one of the stones of angle of humanistic education . The Old ones put already on the same plan physical education and intellectual. Pythagore was brilliant philosophical which was also champion of fight then trainer of the great champion Milon of Crotona. The Rebirth redécouvre the educational virtues of the sport and Montaigne to Rabelais while passing by Mercurialis, all the authors at the base of the humanistic movement integrate the sport in education. Gargantua is very requested on this level!
Each time has its sport-king. The Antiquité was thus the golden age of the race of tanks. During more than one millenium, the auriges, coachmen of the tanks of race, were stars adulated by crowd in all the Roman Empire. The Tournament, which consists in fighting a true battle of knights, but “without hatred”, was the activity with the mode in Occident between 11th and the 13th century. Attention not to confuse the Tournament and the equestrian Tournament, version very reduced of the tournament. The violence of Tournament causes its loss, the more so as the Jeu of palm is essential as of the 13th century and until the 17th century like the sport king in Occident. This set of rackets sets ablaze Paris, the France then the Western rest of the world. The 18th century sees the decline of the play of palm and the arrival, or rather the return, of the horse-races which are essential like the sport king of 18th and 19th centuries. The succession of the horse-races was bitterly disputed because the number of the structured sports increases spectacularly as of the end of the 19th century. The Football raid finally the setting and is still today the undeniable sport number one on planet.
For this general table, it is advisable to bring regional nuances. Thus, it is noticed that the old British empire is not really set on football! On the other hand, it cultivates the other sports which supported formerly the English good company, of the Tennis to the Field hockey while passing by the Rugby and the Cricket. The cricket thus has the national statute in countries like the India or the Pakistan. In the same way, North America put at the world several sports like Canadian Hockey and Basket-ball and American Baseball and American football, thus managing, temporarily, to escape the vague football (which they call soccer ). In France, the sport king of the end of the 19th century is the Cyclisme which keeps the palm until the triumph of the Football, between the two world wars. The Rugby hoped well to mix has this fight, but its too regional implantion was a brake.
Organization of the sport
General informationThe sport is practiced either within a club or out of any club. The clubs are affiliated with federations. The clubs organize the drives and place their means at the disposal of the competitions. The federations organize the competitions and enact the payments.
The large majority of the sportsmen is made up of sportsmen amateurs, i.e. men and women who practice their activity without receiving any wages in return. Amateurism has its reverse with an access limited to the popular classes. for certain activities and maroon amateurism, i.e. occult remuneration or supply of uses of kindness to sportsmen officially amateurs.
Certain sportsmen perceive wages in return of their activity. These sportsmen are known as “professional”. The majority of them are under contract with a club. The Football in Europe and the Basket-ball with the the United States of America are two known examples of sports practiced by professionals. Since the beginning of the Years 1990 and the professionalisation of the Olympic Games, a long time bastion of the sport amateur, the phenomenon of sporting professionalism touches almost the whole of the disciplines.
Drives and competitionsThe practice of a sport breaks up into three types of activity: the drive, the competition and recovery.
The drive aims to train and involve the practitioner so that its performances increase. To be beneficial, the drive must be distributed on a succession of regular meetings, progressive and complementary the ones to the others. The competition aims to measure the sportsmen between them and to reward the best. For many sportsmen, the competition is the most pleasant moment most extremely and of the practice of the sport. Lastly, the practice of a sport includes phases of recovery and relaxation. The objective of these meetings is to leave with the body of the athlete time and the rest necessary so that it goes back in a position to produce the best efforts.
MediatizationThe sporting events are the shapes of spectacles, but their scenario is not written in advance. During Antiquity, the Scuplture or the Poésie were good vectors of mediatization of the sport. With the arrival of the modern media with in the chronological order the written press, the radio, the Television then Internet, the sport has powerful media supports. Thus, there exists since 1977 sporting television channels whose object are the diffusion of tests and sporting information. Some are general practitioners and are devoted to various sports while others specialize in a discipline. Among the titles of the sporting written press one will quote the Team in France, Sports Illustrated with the the United States or Gazzetta dello Sport in Italy, in particular.
Competences of sportsmenEach discipline calls upon particular sporting competences.
Balance, the force, motricity, speed, the endurance, the concentration, the reflex, dexterity are the most known competences. Certain disciplines call upon only one competence rather whereas others call upon a range of several competences. except sporting competences, there exist determining physical factors of the athletic performance, these factors are the force, speed, the endurance, the flexibility and the coordination of the driving units (will intra and intermusculaire+proprioception).
Success in a discipline depends on the capacity of the sportsman to carry out a precise gesture. Some discplines consist in carrying out the most precise possible gesture while having all the time necessary to the preparation of the gesture. The Tir with the arc is an example of this type of disciplines. Other disciplines leaves little make-ready time and the sportsman must carry out his gesture here in a spontaneous way. The Karaté is example of this type of disciplines.
Various sporting disciplinesHere a list of the most known sports, classified by ordinary categories. Other sports could supplement this list. Note that certain sports can belong to several categories.
The majority of each one of these sports have its equivalent for the handicapped people: Handisport.
Classification in reference to the Olympic Games
The Olympic Games are an international competition which gathers a selection of sporting disciplines. Thus, it is possible to classify the sports between those which are registered with the Olympic Games, called “Olympic Sports” and those which are not it. Among those which are not “Olympic Sports”, some nevertheless are recognized by the CIO (International Olympic committee).
The table below alphabetically presents the Olympic sports and the nonOlympic sports recognized by the CIO.
See also: Olympic Sports
Many federations do not request the recognition of the CIO (automobile sport, in particular) while others are in phase of recognition by the CIO (American football, for example).
Sporting great eventsHere a list of the principal sporting great events. This list is not exhaustive.
Sport and healthThe balanced practice of a sport helps to be maintained in physical and mental good health. Contrary, excess in a direction, the complete absence of physical exercise, and that in the other, sporting overwork, are bad for health.
Benefits of the sportThe practice of a sport makes work the cardiorespiratory system and various muscles. It makes it possible to burn calories and thus to prevent obesity (prevention of the Obésité). It encourages to have a correct food (Alimentation of the Sportsman). It facilitates the evacuation of the nervous tension accumulated in the course of the day (Stress). It allows the discovery of the body and its limits. It facilitates the acquisition of the direction of balance, either in situations envisaged (exercises of gymnastics), or in unforeseen situations (plays of balloon, sports of combat).
Risks related to the sport and PreventionThe practice of the sport presents risks. The sportsman can be wounded by making a clumsy movement, while falling (distorsion, muscular elongation, Claquage, osseous Fracture, cranial traumatism) or by receiving a blow. He can be victim of a cardiovascular accident (of the type Myocardial infarction).
Certain sports present real risks of personal injuries serious, such as the cranial traumatism or the drowning, and their practice is authorized only with one adapted equipment, such as: life jacket for the canoe, helmet for the descent in VTT, complete harnessing for the guard of hockey. Certain sports known as “extreme” present even such mortals accident risks that their practice is prohibited.
The intensive sports activity is source of serious wounds which can force the sportsman to stop and which can leave after-effects. The practice of a sport must be adapted to the age of the practitioner and its state of tiredness. A person can be marked with life by a too intense sports activity in her childhood. A sportsman can be obliged to stop the practice of his sport following training sessions or too hard and too frequent competition. The Artistic Gymnastics is the example of a discipline where young sportsmen are subjected to dangerous excercices for their health.
The best prevention against the accidents consists in practicing a sport in the code of practice which is applicable for him: training of the technical epic, training of the rules of good practice and safety, regular drive, heating preliminary to the exercises violent one, port of protections recommended, front food adapted, during and after the effort, recovery between the training sessions and the competitions, respect of prohibitions related to the weather conditions, practical in group, etc the annual medical visit at the beginning of season makes it possible to obtain the opinion of a specialist on the capacity in an individual to practice a sport. The refusal to continue an effort which seems too difficult to support is a gesture of safeguard of its health. Such are the principal means of prevention of the accidents.
Sport and doping
See also: Doping (sport)
The doping is one of the health risks of the sportsman. This problem is not however specific to the sportsman.
Doping consists in using products which increase the performance by various means such as the increase in the muscular mass or resistance to the pain. The EPO is an example of doping products.
Doping is a practice of certain high level professional sportsmen but also of certain sportsmen amateurs. Doping is effective: it in general allows those which are doped to obtain performances higher than what they would be without doping. Doping is illicit: the sportsman convinced of doping is sanctioned. Doping is dangeureux for the health of the sportsman: certain deaths of sportsmen could be the consequence of a doping.
The fight and the anti-doping prevention exist. They relate to everyone and, in the very first plan, the sportsmen, their professional entourage and the organizers of competitions. Controls anti-doping make it possible to determine if the sportsman has or were not doped to obtain its result in the competition. The forfeiture of a title and exclusion with life of any competition are examples of sanctions.
The sports where the cases of dopings are most known of the general public are cycling, the athletics, swimming and the haltérophilie.
A number of the review International Newspaper Off Sport Science and Physical Education gives a progress report on the problem of doping in the sport. One sees there in particular the fact that the doctors of the sport are largely implied in this problem in particular in the Anglo-Saxon countries. It is also seen that the existing law is not adapted to the problem since in general only punished are the athletes or runners whereas most of the time it is a complex system and that all the entourage is even implied in certain cases (Tour de France cyclist) it practically acts of a tradition related to the activity which gives place to a true initiatory ritual (related to the doping practices) for the participants. Articles are also been published on the subject in public Ethics (Canada) and in Revista will brasileira of ciencas C esporto (Brazil). Doping is analyzed there in particular by Eric Perera as associated with the pollution of the body, with the concepts of pure and impure. Work of Douglas the Mary anthropologist (Purity and Danger. Year analysis off the concept off pollution and taboo, 1965) are used as references for better including/understanding this problem.
Economy of the Sport
See also: Economy of the sport
The sport has an important activity at the economic level. It created and made live a heterogeneous form of sector assembling shovel-Miss of the media, the equipment suppliers, the franknesses and other clubs sporting, the doctors, lawyers, the trainers and advisers in all kinds, of the gardeners and even of the cabinets of architecture specialized in the design of stages and other arenas. Some sporting professionals also draw their incomes from the sport. For memory, one will recall that the number of the accrédiations for the media is always largely higher than that of the accreditations of athletes at the time of the Olympic Games of summer: 15.000 against 10.000.
Industries and the trade of the building, the textile, the car, the spectacle, the mediae and tourism work for the sport. The contracts of the professional sportsmen, the advertizing parainages and the public allocations relate to important money masses. The sporting bets also generate important incomes. Certain sporting clubs are quoted on the stock exchange companies. Sports equipment, right of diffusion televisual and other derivative products make turn the economic machine. This is valid in very many countries, on the five continents. The share of the GDP devoted to the sport is obviously more important in the countries most developed because of the heavy investments, in particular as regards stages, but also by the big part granted to this type of expenditure by the households.
Except voluntary help, the economic weight of the sport in the French economy is estimated at 1,73% of GDP, that is to say 27,4 billion euros in 2003. The household expenses represent more than 50% of these amounts (14,2 billion euros in 2003), against 7,9 billion euros for the local government agencies, 3,2 for the State, and 2,2 for the companies. Among the sporting expenditure of the households in 2003,3,7 billion are devoted to sport clothing and shoes, 2 with the durable goods, 2,7 with the other goods and 5,8 with the services. The Ministry for youth and the sports estimates at 100.000 (58% men for 42% women) the number of employees working for the sporting sector in France for some 20.000 employers.
This economy is drawn by engagements from the professional sportsmen, such as the large international compétions, but also by the voluntary help of mass of the sportsmen amateurs like the practice of football in Europe. It profits from the development of the sport and it accelerates it. It makes it possible to the professional sportsmen to work under always better conditions, to the sportsmen amateurs to reach their leisure at increasingly gravitational cost and the spectators to attend competitions increasingly more spectacular and more festive.
On another side, like any economic domain, the economy of the sport does not escape certain drifts such as the Corruption or the doping.
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