The long speed skating tracks is a form of Patinage where the practitioners try as soon as possible to traverse a distance with shoes. It is noted that there exists a discipline very close to this sport: the Shorts-track.
History of this sport
This sport was founded by the International union of ice-skating. It is Olympic sport since the installation of the Winter Olympics in 1924 with Chamonix (France). It undergoes a revolution in the years 1990 with the introduction of a new system to springs: the klaps which made it possible to gain nearly one second to each passage of a turn, while making it possible the blade to thus fall apart on the level of the heels at the time of a push (it is longer) and which thus allows a better contribution speed. This sport is professional with the Netherlands where it is very popular, indeed most gifted can contract big contracts of sponsoring over there.
The discipline can be practiced on skating rinks covered or not, often on artificial surfaces of ice, but at the time of the Olympic tests, the rule wants that nowadays the tracks are covered on oval tracks. According to the established rules by the RESULTING one, a track standart must measure either 400 meters or 333,33 meters length, in general it is the first format which is retained for the great competitions, but for the drive and of the competitions of official receptions, certain tracks can have a distance from 200-250 meters.
Each race is the departure of two competitors leaving each one on its side where two lines are traced on the ice to traverse the same distance, the goal not being to beat its opponent but to traverse the distance as soon as possible. Each line has a color, and to avoid with the skater being mistaken and for the visibility of this sport to the spectators, an arm-band of this same color is carried by this one (a white color for that whose departure is inside, red for that of outside)
It arrives sometimes (but seldom) that it has there four runners leaving at the same time, with two runners on each line, in this case there, two added runners carrying a yellow arm-band and other blue.
Lastly, when tests by teams take place, each team is composed of three skaters, and in the case of a test of marathon it is a departure masses some (departure grouped on the same line) which is held.
There exist two kinds of shoes, the traditional shoes and the klaps , in general in the competitions the second choice is privileged. The klaps were introduced into ice-skating in 1996 and created a true revolution in this sport
The length of the shoes lies between 33 and 45 centimetres according to the weight of the skater and his preferences personnel.
Much attention is given to the penetration in the air, thus an intensive research takes place on the combination to make it possible to save time (as in swimming or cycling) and their aérodynamisme.
The basic form of speed skating consists in patinating at a distance single once, this format is retained for the championships of the world, the world cup and the Olympic Games. The usual distances are the 500 m, 1.000 m, 1.500 m, 3.000 m (for the women only), 5.000 and 10.000 m (for the men only), but it exists sometimes of other distances retained like the 100 m or the mile.
The 500 m is the only test where the skater runs twice, and in fact the total time will determine final time, for all the other tests, only a race will not be run.
Compound ( allround )
It is about the one of the oldest formats. The skaters run four distances and their row is based over the times traversed at various distances. The method of calculating is the same one for all the races, all times are calculated on the last 500 meters. For example, if the runner makes 40 seconds the 500 m proof, it obtains 40 points, in the same way if it makes 2 minutes (120 seconds) the 1.500 meter proof (3 X.500 meters), it will obtain 40 points again. The points are calculated until the third decimal one. It is the runner which obtains less points which gains the general test. This system is called Samalog .
Continuation by teams
It is about the only collective test in speed skating where each team has three candidates. Each team starts from a side of the track, only the internal line is used, for the men the distance is of 8 full rotations, 6 among women.
There exist several formats of races. With the Olympic Games, the format is unusual there, because contrary to the championships of the world and the world cup where each team tries as soon as possible to traverse the distance on an attempt, where the system by direct elimination in format of cut (quarterfinal, then half finale and finale) is retained.
This test is most recent, will consider RESULTING it official that as from 2004 and CIO will integrate it into its program only in 2006.
The skaters leave at the same time on the same line on the large ones outdistances being able to be included/understood between 40 km (in general it is this distance which is retained in the covered skating rinks) and 200 km (outside). Most famous race are the Elfstedentocht which is contributed every 6/7 years to the Netherlands and the International Big Rideau Lake Speed Skating Marathon in the Ontario with the Canada which is held annually.
- Speed skating to the Olympic Games
- the RESULTING one organizes since 1893 the behavior of Championnats of the world of speed skating .
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