- In kinematics, speed is a vector quantity which measures for a movement, the report/ratio of the distance covered at time.
Speed in kinematics
- the curvilinear speed , which is the distance traversed on a Courbe per unit of Temps . It is a size Scalaire.
the vector-speed or the speed in the space , which is the Vecteur
The international unit speed is the Mètre by second (m.s-1). For the motor vehicles, one also frequently uses the kilometer hour (km/h), the Anglo-Saxon system uses the thousand per hour ( mile per hour , mph). In the navy, one uses the node, which is worth one thousand sailor per hour, that is to say 0,514 4 m.s-1. In aviation, one uses sometimes the Mach, Mach 1 being the speed of the his (which varies according to the temperature and from the pressure).
History of the concept speed
A formal definition missed a long time with the concept speed, because the mathematicians avoided making the quotient of two nonhomogeneous sizes. To divide a distance by a time thus appeared as false to them as could seem to us today the sum of these two values. Thus to know if a body went more quickly than another, Galileo (1564-1642) compared the ratio of the distances covered by these bodies with the report/ratio of corresponding time. It applied for that following equivalence:
The concept instantaneous speed is formally defined for the first time by Pierre Varignon (1654-1722) the July 5th 1698, like the report/ratio an infinitely small length over time infinitely small put to traverse this length. It earlier uses for that the formalism of the differential Calculus developped at the item fourteen years by Leibniz (1646-1716).
The concept speed
It is necessary to distinguish two types of speed:
- the mean velocity, which answers the elementary definition very precisely. It is calculated by dividing the distance covered by run time; it has a direction over a given period;
- the instantaneous speed, which is obtained by passage to the limit of the definition speed. It is defined in one precise moment, via the concept of derivation . For example in calculations of Kinematic, speed is a Vecteur obtained by deriving the Cartesian Coordonnées from the position compared to time:
Instantaneous vector-speed of an object whose position at time is given by calculated like the Dérivée
Acceleration is the derivative speed, and speed is the derivative of the distance according to time.
The Accélération is the rate of shifting of speed of an object over the period. The average acceleration of an object of which speed changes starting from with for one period is given by:
The vector of instantaneous acceleration of an object whose position at time is given by is
The final speed of an object starting with speed then accelerating with a constant rate during a time is:
The mean velocity of an object undergoing a constant acceleration is . To find displacement of such an object accelerating for the period , to substitute this expression in the first formula to obtain:
When only the initial swiftness of the object is known, the expression
can be used. These basic equations for the final swiftness and displacement can be combined to form an equation which is independent of time:
The equations above are valid for at the same time the traditional Mécanique but not for the restricted Relativité. In particular in traditional mechanics, all will be of agreement on the value of and the rules of transformation for the position create a situation in which all the observers not accelerating would describe the acceleration of an object with the same values. Neither one nor the other are true for restricted relativity.
The kinetic energy of a moving object is linear with its Masse and the square its speed:
The kinetic energy is a quantity Scalaire.
Polar coordinatesIn Coordinated polar, speed in the plan can be broken up of radial speed, , moving away or going towards the origin and speed orthoradiale, in the perpendicular direction (which one will not confuse with the tangential component), equal to (see angular Velocity).
The Angular momentum in the plan is
One recognizes in
If the force is central (see Mouvement with central force), then areal speed is constant (second law of Kepler).
- Average acceleration
- Speed of light
- Speed of phase
- Speed of group
- relative Speed
- Speeds (aerodynamics)
- kinematic Torque
- Beats per minute (BPM): measure “speed” of a piece of music
- Site of conversion of units (of which speed)
Simple: Speed Simple: Velocity
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