The space conquest consists of the physical exploration of space and the objects external with the Ground, and in a general way to all that touches with the Science, the Technologie, and with the space policy.
It took its rise at the end of the Second world war thanks to the German projections in the fields of the rocket S, and it was one of the great moments of second half of the 20th century. It was marked, at its beginnings, by a strong competition between the USA and the the USSR, for reasons for national prestige related to the Cold war.
The idea to send an object or a man in space was conceived by authors of Science-fiction of the hundreds of years before that is not physically and materially possible. During second half of the XXe century, with the development of the adequate means of propulsion, of the improvement of materials, the sending of a mission in space was not any more one dream but a reality.
Space programs by country
- Space program of China
- Space program of the United States
- Space program of India
- Space program of Japan
- Space program of Russia
- Space program of the European Union
- Space program of France
Famous great men and some cosmonauts
- Buzz Aldrin, second Man to be gone on the the Moon
- Neil Armstrong, first Man to be gone on the Moon
- Patrick Baudry, first French to steal on board the Space shuttle
- Christian Jean-Wolf, first French in space
- Michael Hakes, pilot of the Module of order of Apollo 11
- Youri Gagarine, first Man in space
- Valentine Glouchko, originator of Soviet rocket engine
- Robert Goddard, originator of the first rockets
- Claudie Haigneré, spationaut Frenchwoman
- Jean-Pierre Haigneré, spationaut French
- Sergueï Korolev, father of the Soviet space program
- Alexei Leonov, first Man “to be walked” in space
- Hermann Oberth, one of the fathers of modern astronautics
- Eugen Sänger, worked on several American programs
- Alan Shepard, first American astronaut
- Valentina Terechkova, first woman in space
- Constantin Tsiolkovski, one of the fathers of modern astronautics
- Guerman Titov, second Man in space
- Wernher von Braun, father American space program
- Yang Liwei, first Chinese in space
- John Young, American astronaut having flown on Gemini, Apollo and the Space shuttle.
VictimsOfficially, the space conquest has fact 23 died to date. However, out of many people were killed in the ex-USSR, China and with the Brésil by the explosion of rockets on the launching pad or by rockets falling down on the ground. The explosion of a rocket ARIANE 5 had caused the potentially dangerous remains repercussion on zones fortunately not inhabited in French Guiana.
Columbia (2003): destroyed at the time of the re-entry
To date, it there of died forever in space. The deaths occurred either at the time of the drive on the ground, or at the time of the Décollage, or at the time of the re-entry in the atmosphere.
NASA pays homage to these victims through a memorial. The names of several of these spationauts were used to baptize geological Astéroïde S or formations on other celestial bodies. Several commemorative plaques were deposited on the the Moon by the Apollo missions, of which in particular by David Scott, at the time of the landing of Apollo 15.
- the Program Vostok
- the Program Mercury
- the Program Voskhod
- the Program Soyuz
- the Program Gemini
- the Program Apollo
- the Skylab
- the Space shuttle
- the space station Mir
- the International space station (ISS)
- the Program Shenzhou
- the Program Constellation
List of the live missions between 1961 and 1986
- List of the live missions between 1987 and 1999
- List of the live missions between 2000 and 2010
FiguresThe Cité of formless space that a figure completely symbolic system was reached the December 10th 2006 because an astronaut sprang in space as a 1 000e team member of a space mission.
It is about Mark Polansky, 50 years, pilot of the Space shuttle Atlantis for the mission STS-98 in 2001, a space flight bound for the International space station (ISS) which lasted 13 days. For its second mission, STS-116, it orders the shuttle Discovery which also joined the ISS.
For these 1 000 members of a space mission, here some figures remarkable or surprising:
- on these 1 000 team members, 446 different people including 99 Russians, 280 Americans, 3 Chinese, 64 of other nationalities including 31 Europeans including 9 French;
- on these 446 people, 168 made only one mission;
- 158 left in the space vacuum during their mission (Sortie extravéhiculaire);
- oldest at the time of its flight was 78 years old (John Glenn);
- on these 446 people, 44 women including 1 Frenchwoman (Claudie Haigneré, godmother of the City of space);
- young person at the time of its flight was 25 years old (Guerman Titov);
- 18 lost the life on mission;
- the longest flight in only one mission (14 month - Valeri Poliakov);
- 12 astronauts walked on the the Moon among the 24 astronauts having left towards our natural satellite;
- 2 astronauts made 7 missions (Jerry Ross and Franklin Chang-Diaz);
- 4 citizens “offered” a place of “space tourist”;
- Sergei Avdeyev lived longest in space, that is to say more than 2 years in several missions and 3 flights;
- 2 women were “Commander” of their mission (Valentina Terechkova and Eileen Collins);
- the orbital flight shortest was of only one orbit (Youri Gagarine, the April 12th 1961).
On the whole, the Man passed - at December 10th, 2006 - in space mission 718 266 hours and 17 minutes, that is to say 29 927 days, i.e. nearly 82 years.
- Conquest of the Moon
- List of the space agencies
- chronological List of the countries launchers
- Fabric of the heroes
- space Tourism
- Colonization of space
- List of the articles relating to astronautics
- technological advances related to the space conquest
Simple: Space exploration
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