See also: Glycine
The soya , or soya , is a Plante climbing of the family of the Fabacée S, of the kind Glycine (not to be confused with the glycine, Wisteria sp.), near to bean, largely cultivated for its Grain are oleaginous S which provide principal the Edible oil consumed in the world.
The term indicates also its seeds, which constitute one of the richest Aliment S natural. It contains a great quantity of Protéine S, of Glucide S, Lipide S, Vitamine S.A. and B, of Potassium, Calcium, Magnésium, Zinc and Fer.
Scientific name: Glycine max (L.) Merr., family of the Fabacée S, subfamily of the Faboideae , tribe of the Phaseoleae , subgroup of the Glycininae .
Etymology“Soya” derives from a Manchu word, via English soya , borrowed itself from Japanese soy . The orthography “soya” induced in French an erroneous pronunciation, it probably comes from German where it is marked soya . In this respect the C-W communication “soya” attested since 1745 according to the Robert seems preferable (cf Italian soia , Spanish soya ).
DescriptionSoya is an annual, known herbaceous plant only at the cultivated state. There are very many varieties being different in particular by the port, since climbing plants or crawling, closer to the original types, with the dwarf forms more usually cultivated.
The plant (sheets, stems, pods) is entirely covered fine gray or brown hairs. The drawn up stems have a length from 30 to 130 cm.
The sheets are trifoliate (seldom carrying five leaflets) and points out the general shape of the bean sheets. The leaflets measure from 6 to 15 cm length and 2 to 7 cm broad. As at bean the first two sheets are whole and opposite. The sheets fall before the pods became ripe.
The flowers, white or crimsons, of small sizes, almost unperceived, appear with the armpit of the sheets, grouped in bunches from 3 to 5. They are hermaphrodites and autogames, however cross pollination is perfectly possible.
The fruits are Gousse S hairy, long from 3 to 8 cm of right or arched form, and contain 2 to 4 seeds in general (seldom more).
The seeds of spherical or elliptic form have a diameter from 5 to 11 Misters They are edible.
Surface of distributionSoya is originating in the hot areas of the south-east of the Asia, but 45% of the surface cultivateds are with the the United States and 55% of the worldwide production come from this country. The United States produced 75 million tons of soya in 2000, more than 25 million tons were exported. With the Brazil and the Argentinian , they ensure most of exports of soya. The India and the China are also important producers of soya. However China, large consuming, imports itself of soya.
UseMost of the production of the United States is intended for the animal feed or export, even if the consumption of the Americans is in rise since the Années 1990. In 1973, the embargo on American exports of soya puts at the great day the dependence of the European Common Market. The development of culture competitors was then initiated in Europe. The by-product of the manufacture of oil, the soya bean oil cake, with contents of rough proteins of about 45%, finds an interest obvious in the food of the milch cows, in particular those nourished starting from corn ensilage (naturally low in proteins).
Soya in the food
One can find on the market of fresh broad beans of soya, frozen broad beans of soya and dried broad beans. Soya in the human consumption is used, especially in China and with the Japan, in several forms:
the flour of soya is rich in proteins, low in glucids. It is often mixed with other flours.
the Tonyu or Lait of soya is a Boisson, nondairy, rich in proteins, low in lipids and calcium and without Cholestérol.
the soya oil, is used to manufacture the Margarine and certain oils of cooking, when it is in a very refined form.
the tofu is manufactured starting from Lait of soya which, once curdled, gives mashed potatoes, itself transformed into a kind of cheese which can be used tender, firm or fried.
the Tempeh is manufactured starting from fermented seeds and has a consistency firmer than the tofu .
the Natto is manufactured starting from fermented seeds and has a rather sticky consistency.
the Miso manufactured starting from a paste of soya is fermented and can be used in soups, sauces and like aromatic.
the Tamari is a fermented sauce of soya, without corn, with the taste more marked than the shoyu .
the “bean sprouts” are starts-up of Haricot mungo ( Vigna radiata , e.g. Phaseolus ) from 3 to 5 days. They are bleached or cooked for a better digestion and do not have anything commun run with soya ( Glycine max ).
Its dietetic interest is to be a nonflesh-colored proteinic source.
Soya and allergyIt is largely used in the food of the human beings and the animals. However the broad beans of soya contain inhibiters of the Trypsine which prevent the organization from absorbing proteins. The allergic subjects should not thus consume raw broad beans of soya.
Soya must be regarded as a “allergen of food origin traditional”. He was wrongfully regarded for a long time as a substitute not presenting any danger to the children developing of the unfavourable reactions with the cow's milk. However, of work showed the opposite thereafter. In July 2005, the French Agency of public health of the food Afssa emitted a warning statement vis-a-vis the use of preparations containing soya before the 3 years age.
Soya is recognized today as being a professional allergen in industry.
In addition, soya contains Toxine S.
Proteins allergens of soyaThe principal proteins responsible for allergy to soya are known. However, of the factors like the stress undergone during its industrial culture and processes can influence its potential allergen. Moreover, the projections in biotechnology raise interrogations with respect to genetically modified soya.
Proteins of storage of soyaIn seeds of leguminous plants, a large fraction of proteins of storage corresponds to major allergens.
- the sub-unit α of 70 kD of the β-conglycine is recognized by 25% of the patients sensitized with soya reached of dermatite atopic. Work suggested the existence of a épitope located in a fragment nonmade up of approximately 50 residues of amino-acids. Also, this protein is resistant to degradation by artificial gastric liquid.
- the glycinine (350 kD) accounts for approximately 35% of proteins contained in soya. It consists of 6 sub-units of which each one of them contains two peptide chains (an acid and basic), bound by bridges disulfides. Acid peptides would be responsible for the majority of fixings of IgE on the glycinine.
- the allergenicity of some proteins having a molecular weight included/understood enters 14 and 78 kD was shown. Among them, a thiol protease “Gly m data base 30 K” (34 kD), as well as a tryptic inhibiter of the soya of the type Kunitz “STKI” (: 21.5 kD). It was suggested that IgE of the individuals allergic at the same time to groundnut and soya would be fixed in priority on largest proteins whereas, for those reacting only to soya, IgE would show a great affinity for low-weight proteins molecular.
Vegetable defensive proteins of soyaCertain plant proteins, produced under particular conditions, present a capacity allergen. Recent publications show also the presence of other allergens at soya, like proteases or inhibiters of trypsin.
Biotic stressThe biotic stresses are numerous and originate in the viruses, the organizations phytophagous and the pathogenic ones. In order to face there, the plants set up a defense system utilizing a feedback path. The produced vegetable defensive proteins act as rampart against the vermin. In the case of soya, it acts of inhibiters of protease. Indeed, the vermin secretes proteases and, in answer, a “oxydative burst ” (BO) is established leading to the chemical transfers of signals in particular via ethylene. The ethylene diffusion in the plant makes it possible to acquire a total resistance vis-a-vis the vermin by secreting proteins of defense often allergens.
With regard to soya, it was shown that the protein secretion PR-10 SAM22 of family “Study Bureau v-1 like”, is the answer of an attack of a Nématode. The “Study Bureau v-1 like” are known for their strong allergenicities, persons in charge in particular of the sensitivity to the Pollen of the birch. That implies then a potential allergen with this protein SAM22. The soya secret also of the serine inhibiters protease (STKI) to deny oneself the Larva S of insects. The remarkable stability of STKI at the strong temperatures and the pH acids is certainly implied in its role of food allergen.
Abiotic stressThe dryness, the cold and salinity are abiotic stresses which impose on the plants total metabolic changes. Example: the induction of the acids phosphatases “purple” (PAP) by the stresses of salinity at soya. The acids phosphatases “purple” are commonly found at the plants like soya. However, their properties are not yet well included/understood. A study shows the expression that a new GmPAP3 gene would be induced by the osmotic stress. The stress with NaCl causes the translation of gene, as well for the wild varieties ( Glycine soya ), as for the cultivated varieties ( Glycine max ). The synthesis of proteins PAP thus induced leads to an oxydative stress (with formation of H2O2). In answer to this oxydative stress, soya forms proteins allergens like thiol protease (Gly m data base 30K).
Soya and Breast feedingSoya contains many Phyto-estrogens, which can disturb the mechanism of Lactation women nursing (and thus to decrease the quantity of milk that it can give to its baby). This is why it is disadvised to the women who nurse to consume soya.
CultureSoya can be affected by certain parasites, most virulent being perhaps the Nématode of soya.
More half of soya cultivated today is genetically modified (: 36.7 million hectares against: 35.3 million hectares of soya non-transgenic in 2002). The transgenic culture of soya, largely adopted in Argentina, develops now in Brazil under the pressure of the farmers. It can reduce the request for pesticides thanks to the use of varieties less subjected to the diseases, but, in opposite direction, the resistance of these varieties to the weedkillers can encourage their massive spreading on the cultures: a modified gene allows the tolerance a weedkiller, the Glyphosate.
Europeans are the main customers for soya nontransgenic invoicee approximately 10% expensive.
Associations such as Greenpeace and CorpWatch show the producers of soya of Brazil to contribute to the deforestation of the Amazon forest in the area of the Mato Grosso. In Latin America, the culture of soya causes conflicts between the small farmers and the great landowners who use highly mechanized methods of culture, little applicants of labor.
Phytopharmacological products on soyaList phytopharmacological Produits authorized in France to fight against the parasites of soya: http://e-phy.agriculture.gouv.fr/usa/fiche222.htm
- food Allergy: soya Julien Tap and Gaétane Collard, IUP SIAL, Paris XII, 2005
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