A sovkhoz (in Russian Совхоз,) was a farm of State in the USSR. The word is the contraction of Советскоехозяйство, that is to say council of hearth . The sovkhozes are create during the expropriation of the Koulak S of their farms at the time of the countryside of collectivization initiated by Joseph Stalin towards the end of the year 1920.
A person working in a sovkhoz is a sovkhoznik (совхозник, with female the sovkhonitsa, совхозница). In a sovkhoz, the farmers are paid and are not owners of nothing. The wages (or little) are not indexed on the productivity of the sovkhoz.
In order to mitigate a bloodless productivity and thus a too weak production, private small holdings were tolerated in the sovkhozes. Their surface was the subject then of various reforms.
With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1990, the country counted 25 500 farms: 45 % of sovkhozes and 55 % of Kolkhoze S. the intermediate size of a sovkhoz was of 153 km ², that is to say more of the double of that of a kolkhoz. The sovkhozes were more numerous in the East of the country.
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