See also: Soprano (homonymy)
In the traditional Western music , the term soprano indicates usually the category of acute voice more , often charged with the melody. This word can take on several directions, in report/ratio the ones with the others.
Remarks of grammatical nature. Of Italian origin , the name soprano , is male kind, whatever the Sexe of the Chant or (“a soprano”). In the plural, one must say: “of the sopranos”; “of the soprani” (plural faulty) is disadvised by the French Academy which recommends the regularity for plurals of the words of foreign origin. In addition, concerning the female voices, one can also employ the derivative “soprane”, of the female kind: “a soprane”, “sopranes”; Littré gives nevertheless " a soprano".
Desk in a chorusIn a chorus - or a Choral society - the word soprano indicates before a whole Pupitre made up women and/or children, of which the Ambitus is located above that of the viola S. By extension, the term also indicates each member of this desk, and this, whatever its true vocal typology.
Part in a polyphonic buildingIn a Polyphony, if no vocal source or instrumental particular is mentioned, the soprano indicates simply the left higher, located above the viola - in opposition to the low - this, in reference to the Quatuor basic vocal: soprano, low viola, Tenor and.
Type of instrumentWithin a family of musical instruments, the soprano indicates that whose Ambitus is located beyond that of the viola.
From the point of view of the Tessiture S, there does not exist strict relation between that of an instrument “soprano” and that of the “soprano voice”: for example, the Recorder soprano, sound a octave higher than the soprano voice.
Vocal typologyIn the Classical music, and with regard to the voices of Soloist S, a soprano is the type of female voice whose Tessiture is more acute: it is thus the acutest voice, all confused categories.
There exist also male soprano voices: the Castrato S of the periods traditional baroque and ; boys before their puberty. The men singing in voice of Fausset are usually called Contreténor S - or Sopraniste S, when them Ambitus approaches that of the soprano exceptionally.
the term “soprano” to indicate a vocal category is used since the end of the 17th century, succeeding names of “superius” or “top”.
There exist several subcategories of sopranos who differ by the character from the characters that they interpret, the valiancy of the voice and richness of the stamp, the constant one remaining the tessiture, which generally extends from C to C.
Light sopranoThe light soprano is a subcategory of soprano having the highest tessiture and nimblest, but least powerful.
Lyric sopranoThe lyric soprano - Italian soprano lirico in - is a subcategory of soprano occupying the intermediate place between the preceding type and the following, as well from the point of view of the agility as of that of the power.
For example, the title role of Manon , of Massenet, is a role of lyric soprano. Elisabeth Schwarzkopf and Victoria of Los Angeles is examples of lyric soprano.
Dramatic sopranoThe dramatic soprano - or falcon , of the name of a professional singer of the 19th century having this type of voice - is a subcategory of soprano to the Tessiture less nimble, but very powerful.
Many roles of dramatic soprano concerned with the romantic repertory require a great agility however: Normalized Bellini or Anna Bolena of Donizetti for example. One speaks for these roles about use of dramatic soprano about agility of which Maria Callas was a kind of prototype.
Soprano will coloraturaThe soprano will coloratura , does not indicate a vocal subcategory strictly speaking, but a soprano with the particularly nimble voice - i.e. having much facility to vocalize - and generally very wide, which specialized in the repertory of the decorated Chant and the Coloratura S. They are very often a light soprano but not only.
Exemples of roles for soprano will coloratura :
Generally, the opera Italian baroque and Beautiful romantic Canto (Bellini, Donizetti, Rossini) require their interpreters of great aptitudes to handle the colorature (agility, ornamentation), whatever the tessiture of the role.
- See the list of the sopranos.
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