Sophocle is born in 495 or 496 av. J. - C. with Colone (close to Athens). He is the son of an Athénien rich person, Sophilos, owner of slaves blacksmiths and carpenters. According to Aristoxène and as its last work seems to confirm it, its Dème is Colone, in edge of the city. It receives a good education and in particular follows the lessons of Lampros, which enables him at 16 years to lead the chorus after the victory of Salamine. Its career of tragic author is crowned success since at 27 years, it gains the first price vis-a-vis Eschyle and in all it gains 24 victories, arriving second all the other times.
It also makes a political career since in 443 it is Hellénotame of the Ligue of Délos (administrator of the tribute poured by the allies of Athens) and Stratège in 440 near Périclès (it took part in the countryside of Samos). In 413, after the consecutive coup d'etat to the sicilian failure, it is one of the police chiefs of the council which led to the oligarchical mode of 411. It owes primarily these loads with its successes in the tragedy and its friendship with Périclès.
He is married with Athenian the Nicostraté which gives him a son, Iophon. He also has a mistress sicyonienne name of Théoris, with which he has another son, Ariston, father of Sophocle the young person. It is said that little before its death, a conflict of heritage leads Iophon to urge a lawsuit against his/her father in front of the family council in order to prove the senility of this one. The simple reading of its last work puts an end to the lawsuit.
He dies in 406 and its last part, Oedipus in Colone , is played the same year on a purely posthumous basis.
Sophocle reformed the Greek theater by creating the “third actor” ( tritagonist ), after Eschyle which had changed to two the number of the protagonists. Before these authors there was only one actor on scene, and the chorus. The Greek theater will never know nevertheless more than three actors, the secondary roles often being played consequently nobody. It also introduced the adventures and it gave up the system of the trilogy.
He is the author of one hundred twenty-three parts including twenty or twenty-two dramas satyric. The majority were lost.
- Antigone (441)
- Trachiniennes (between 450 and 440)
- Oedipus king (430)
- Electra (between 430 and 420)
- Philoctète (409)
- Oedipus in Colone (406)
Lost parts(109 works)
The fragments of the Limiers ( Ichneutae ) were discovered in Egypt in 1907. They represent approximately half of the part, which makes the Drame of it satyric best preserved after the Cyclops of Euripide transmitted in its entirety.
Péan for Asclépios : words accompanied by music and dance
On the chorus
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