A song is a work made up of an indissociable text and a music one of the other. Simple childish of some words or long counting rhyme Chanson de geste (see the 4002 worms of the song of Roland of XIIe century), this literary and musical expression can cover forms and various structures (Couplet/Refrain, stanza or leaves, gun, accompanied melody or German Lied…) and cover quite different kinds like the traditional Musique or folk, the ethnic Classical music or , the Rock-and-roll or the Jazz.
It can be sung has cappella (without instrumental accompaniment), with a voice (Monodie) or several as in a Choral (Polyphonie), but generally, the song is accompanied by one or more instruments (Guitare, Piano, group…), even a Big band or large a Symphony orchestra.
The creation of a song generally requires the complicity of two Artiste S: the author of the words (Lyric writer), the Type-setter of the Music. Their work is done with their liking, the melody being born sometimes from the text or the text of the melody, or even both simultaneously as for some composer-songwriters. Alain Souchon/Laurent Voulzy, Boris Bergman/Alain Bashung, Mylène Farmer/Laurent Boutonnat, Jacques Lanzmann/Jacques Dutronc formed of the duets author/type-setter become famous in France.
Then the intervenes interprets (the singer or the singer) which will give life to creation. Some like Georges Brassens or Jacques Brel join together the three functions and are thus named song writers and performers.
Sometimes, a fourth musician intervenes: the musical Arranger, that which harmonizes and gives the color particular to the song by its Orchestration (organization of the instruments of accompaniment, in particular during a recording).
All starts with songs
Present in all the human activities and all civilizations, the song adapted to the very diverse needs for the men. The oldest form which one meeting is the hymn, which accompanies the religious ceremonies in almost all civilizations. In Europe with the Moyen-âge was born thus the Gregorian chant, then, at the 16th century, under the Reform, the popular canticles sung in the language of the people. Almost also old are the songs of entertainment. Contrary to the hymns, generally serious and solemn, these songs are sharp and rythmées, because they are intended to be danced. Or of the songs written on Musique S of rock'n'roll, which give desire for moving. Other songs of distraction, for example the knight of the roundtable , are sung at the time of the meals. But it is still of other uses of the song. The need for rythmer the gestures of work and to better support the effort gave rise to the songs of trades
When the song propagates ideas
For a long time until the middle of the 19th century, the song played the part of the newspaper: Chanteur S peddlers went from village in village, spreading, by laments, the sad accounts of crime or the important facts of the large generals. During the time of Crisis, the song was transformed into weapon against the King and the government: thus, as the mazarinades (directed against the Mazarin cardinal), born per hundreds in Paris under the Sling, or of the working songs, sung in the street demonstrations, served to spread ideas and to express aspirations common to a group or people. It is the same of the patriotic anthems like the Marseillaise. Other songs, finally, express emotions, Sentiment S and ideas in a more personal way. Rather than to sing in heart, they are intended to be listened, in the theaters or at home.
Variety of the kinds and Revival of the French song
Since the Years 1950 and even front, one can say that one finds two main tendencies in the French song: A temptation of the easy, rather carefree song incarnated by the wave Yéyé in the Years 1960 (Sheila, France Gall, Antoine…), very media artists of the Years 1970 (Claude Francois, Dalida, Mireille Mathieu, Sylvie Vartan, Johnny Hallyday, Carlos…), and current variety (Jennifer, Garou, Star Academy, Lorie, Geostrophic, Amel Bent…)
Other side: the Song with text, the committed song " Press Sentimentale" , or simply a more adult song and with more marked artistic inclinations seems irremovable (Charles Trenet, Boris Vian, Juliette Gréco, Gainsbourg, Brel, Brassens, Nougaro, Ferré, Barbara…), then in the Years 1980 the assertion of the artists like: Mylène Farmer, Telephone, Higelin, Lavilliers, Renaud, Souchon, Cabrel… until Zazie, Juliette, Mathieu Chédid, Daniel Darc, Vincent Delerm, Jean-Louis Murat, Bénabar, Cali… One attends however with a greater fluidity and co-education of the kinds since the Années 1990 in particular with a co-education and a larger opening in the music rock'n'roll and a permanent recycling of the modes passed like the disco music, the funk, the new wave of the Années 1980 and the extra-light variety style Chantal Goya, in particular under the influence of compilations, elements of maximum profitability for the recording companies. More and more of popular artists try to obtain a certain independence compared to industry not hesitating to occur exclusively under their own label in order to be able to control the whole of their production (Prince in the USA), to launch out in financially risky musical projects (Florent Pagny) or to attack in justice their recording company (Johnny Hallyday).
Certain artists passed by the large machines like the Star Academy (media phenomenon of the years 2000 or for the first time secret television itself its own singers and the met itself on the market of the disc) turn then to a more traditional course, seeking to work with authors of quality: Olivia Ruiz with Juliette or Tètes stiff, Jennifer with Marc Lavoine and Calogero, Nolwenn Leroy with Laurent Voulzy… Apart from these hypothetical and rare emissions of factory " news stars" the television of the Années 2000 grants a less important place to the current song of quality, except at the time of the Victoires of the music or the recorded concerts " live" of Taratata. The crisis of the Disc of the Années 2000 involved the failure to renew of contract of certain great names of the song like Alain Chamfort or of less known emergent talents like Françoiz Breut…
The industry of the discVis-a-vis the giants of the disc of the time (CBS, Sony, Phonogram, Polygram…) years 1980 saw the blossoming of many Independent label in Europe from which some were maintained until today… Companies like Universal, Virgin, TF1, the Fnac but also Harmonia Mundi and its network of record dealers took an increasing importance in music industry. The independent record dealers saw their number being reduced, very appreciably in France, large distribution adapting many market shares.
In same time the radios tend to pass a diversity of titles lower than than it was in the years 1990.
The diffusion and the sale are done today more and more frequently by the Internet. The market of the disc would be in crisis, because of the advent of numerical and the free downloading, upheavals technical that music industry was long in taking into account.
Some see in the recent changes (Free downloading, Mp3, Itunes, Podcast, etc) a major transformation of the uses of consumption of music.
The Popular song (Varieties) is in the center of a significant market whose main actors meet each year at the time of the International market of the music publishing (MIDEM).
The best record sales give place to various types of classifications (Charts, Hit-Parade) which can be weekly, annual, by kind, format (individual or album), by country, etc One of these most known classifications is the Top 50 for France.
to see: Classification of the best record sales
Today, the song is not only any more one form of natural expression, it became true a Art, illustrated by authentic creators (Charles Trénet, Léo Ferré, Georges Brassens, Jacques Brel and so much of others), author S, Compositeur S and interprets S of their own songs, and by large interpreters, like Edith Piaf, Juliette Gréco famous in the whole world. Lastly, it became a true industry. By the radio, the Television, and the disc, successes of the day penetrate everywhere, while the high-speed motorboats make move crowd at the time of their rounds in province or their official receptions in the Parisian big rooms. Behind the high-speed motorboats revolves a whole world, author S, Musicien S, business managers, directors of rooms, etc, which saw song.
- the sheets of autumn
- a green mouse
- On the bridge of Avignon
- Make dodo
- Maman, the p' tits boats
- Can you plant the cabbages
French and French-speaking singer
- Counting rhyme
- Chanson de geste
- traditional Song
- Song of revolt
- Songs of sailors
- Singer of song
- Hall of the song
- Signal 50
- the song, a specific kind
- Studies and university research on the French-speaking song
- Gate of the Hall of the Song
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