It counts 1,25 million inhabitants, the Sofiotes , that is to say 14% of the population of the country. Sofia is at the same time the political and cultural center country, the principal center of exchanges as well as the first industrial center of the country, with activities of Sidérurgie, Métallurgie, mechanical engineering and chemistry. It is also an university center since 1888.
Sofia is located at the west of the country not far from the border of the Serbia. In the south of the city the solid mass of Vitosha is who culminates to 2290 (Black Peak) and who is an appreciated place of excursion of Sofiotes. To approximately 50 km in the north of the city the mountains of Balkans start which extend from is in west on 50 km through all Bulgaria, dividing the country into two. The city is crossed by the river Iskar, affluent of the the Danube.
Sofia knows a continental climate, with great amplitudes in one day, and of the great differences in one year to the other. Indeed, it is located at the limit of the Siberian winters which the Eastern European countries know, and of the leniency of the winters of the Mediterranean countries. Bulgaria enjoys a complex climate and Sofia is an striking example. The average annual temperature is of 9,7 °C and average annual precipitations are of 572 Misters.
July and August are the hottest months with an average temperature of respectively 19,4°C and 20°C. January and February are driest with average precipitations of 27 and 33 Misters.
The most important precipitations are in May and June with respectively 73 and 75 Misters the coldest month is that of January with an average temperature of -1,6°C
The town of Sofia (Sofia-Grad) is one of the 28 oblasti (area - into Bulgarian oбласти) of Bulgaria. The agglomeration of Sofia includes 3 satellite towns and 34 villages. It is made up of 24 districts:
- Bankia (Банкя)
- Vitosha (Витоша)
- Vrëbnitsa (Връбница)
- Vëzrashdane (Възраждане)
- Izgrev (Изгрев)
- Ilinden (Илинден)
- Iskër (Искър)
- Krasna poliana (Краснаполяна)
- Krasno selo (Красносело)
- Kremikovtsi (Кремиковци)
- Lozenets (Лозенец)
- Liulin (Люлин)
- Mladost (Младост)
- Nadejda (Надежда)
- Novi Iskër (НовиИскър)
- Ovtcha kupel (Овчакупел)
- Oborishte (Оборище)
- Pancharevo (Панчарево)
- Poduiane (Подуяне)
- Serdika (Сердика)
- Slatina (Слатина)
- Studentski grad (Студентскиград)
- Sredets (Средец)
- Triaditsa (Триадица)
The area is the place of an old human establishment, going up with the Neolithic (beginning of. The traces of several villages of this time were discovered in the area and a human settlement going back to chalcolithic was discovered in the downtown area
The principal establishment of the thrace tribe of Serdes was on the site of current Sofia. This tribe gave its name to the city - Serdica - which they built with (). Thereafter, it was called Sredets (the city which is with the place) by the Slaves, Triaditsa (trinity) by the Byzantine and Sredets by the Bulgarian ones. The current name of the city was given to him in 1376 according to the basilica Holy-Sophie.
She was conquered by the Romains, in 29 of our era, which made of it the capital of the province of Dacie. With, the Romans built thick walls around the town of Serdica, interior capital of Dacie and important stage on the Roman road of Naissus (current Niš, Serbia) to Byzantium (current Istanbul, Turkey).
In 809, the city was conquered by the Bulgares and it took the name of Sredets . She was quickly regarded as one of the most important feudal cities and a strategic prome was assigned to him under Bulgarian Ier Empire. In the south of Sofia, with the foot of the Vitocha mount, is the church of Boyana of which the frescos which go up in the middle of are one of the Bulgarian cultural vestiges and the Europeans most important. In 1382, it was taken by the Othoman which made of it the capital of the province of Roumélie. The city declined then and became a large village.
After the autonomy of Bulgaria, it becomes in 1879 the capital of Bulgarian IIIe Empire. It then changes quickly face, being transformed into modern Western metropolis. The plans established into 1881-1882 were followed from one period of construction of brick buildings and ways to right angle. Several buildings and parks in the current downtown area go up at that time. The municipal council approved in 1900 the emblem of Sofia and his currency: " Grows but does not age pas".
Under the Communist regime (September 9th, 1944 - November 10th, 1989), Sofia became the principal center economic, cultural, scientific, educational of Bulgaria.
In 1992, the Government chose, in the honor of Holy-Sophie Martyrdom, on September 17th like day of the town of Sofia. The flag of the municipality of Sofia was devoted the same day.
In 1887, Sofia counts 20.000 inhabitants. In 1910, the population of the capital reaches the figure of 100.000 reaching the statute of big city. The population of the city increases very quickly at that time: it is multiplied by fifteen between 1879 and 1939.
In 1946, the city counts a half-million inhabitants, this figure doubles in 1975. Between 1990 and 2001, the population decreased following an economic crisis between 1991 and 1997, this abrupt reduction being due mainly to the emigration, and the considerable fall of the birthrate, one of the rates low of the world. The population was stabilized since.
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- Church Saint-Georges
- Mosque Bania Bachi (" Mosque of the bains")
- Cathedral Alexandre-Nevski
- national Gallery of art
The Tsar Osvoboditel Monument represents the Russian Tsar Alexandre II on his horse. The statue was high in thanks with the tsar and his troops which released Bulgaria of the Othoman domination in 1878. The bronze measurement statue 14 meters and is the work of the Italian Arnoldo Zocchi.
the National Assembly (Narodna Sabranié) was built in 3 stages between 1884 and 1928 and was drawn by a Bulgarian architect who lived and worked with Vienna. The currency on the frontage means “Plain we are strong”. The place was the scene of protests and public revolts, in particular those of 1997 which will lead to the fall of the socialist party, where the building was damaged. Just behind the cathedral Alexandre-Nevski is. Alexandre Nevski was a Russian tsar who saved Russia of the invasion Swedish E in 1240 and became patron saint of the tsar Alexandre II.
Built between 1882 and 1912 in the Byzantine, typical style of the Russian churches of the 19th century, the cathedral is 76 meters long and 53 meters broad and can contain to 7.000 people. Some of the largest Russian and Bulgarian artists of the time worked on the interior of the cathedral (5 wings and 3 furnace bridges).
Inside, one finds: marbles of His and Carrara marble in the entry, Venetian mosaics and dramatic murals like “the day of the judgment”. The impressive external domes were covered with sheets of gold, gifts of the USSR in 1960, and have just been regilded.
Outside Sainte Sofia burns the flame of the unknown soldier , established in 1981 to honor the victims with the war.
The great place around Alexandre Nevski and Sainte Sofia is transformed into flea market, for the tourists who visit the district. On a side there are the grandmothers with their embroidered tablecloths in flax and other the salesmen of all kinds of memories and works of Article This place is the principal place to receive the foreign dignitaries (the Pope, president Clinton…).
Not far from there the Opéra is.
the monument Vassil Levski , in the middle of an animated roundabout is an obelisk marking the place where in 1873 the revolutionist Vassil Levski by the Othoman Police force was hung.
In front of the library Cyrille and Méthode , one can see a statue of the two inventive brothers of the Cyrillic alphabet.
The university of Sofia, a building of style baroque, was set up in the years 1920. The two statues sitting in front of are those of Evlogi and Hristo Georgiev, which gave the ground and the funds to build the building.
SportsThe city counts several clubs of Football. The 4 principal clubs, the Levski Sofia, CSKA Sofia, the Lokomotiv Sofia and the Slavia Sofia, gained all on several occasions the Championnat of Bulgaria of football.
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