Sukarno , whose name is spelled Soekarno in Indonesia, is affectionately called familiarly and “ Bung Karno ” - brother, Karno- comrade by Indonésiens.
It is the first president (1945-67) of the Republic of Indonesia of which he proclaimed independence on August 17th, 1945 with Hatta which will be the first vice-president.
Its childhood and its formationWire of a teacher resulting from the Javanese minor nobility and of a mother of the Balinese aristocracy, the social position of his/her parents enables him to enter to the elementary school - Europeesche Lagere School - and to the college - Hoogere Burgerschool - for Européens. It enters to the school of engineer de Bandung which it leaves graduate in 1926.
In Surabaya, Soekarno becomes acquainted with indigenous political directors, of which H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto, directing organization Sarekat Islam and also of Sneevliet, a Dutchman who will found the Social democrat Party of the Indies, future Communist party indonésien - PKI. With other students engineers, it founds the Partai Nasional Indonesia , “Left National Indonésien” - PNI.
Japanese occupationJanuary 10th, 1942, the Japanese unload with the the Indies Dutchwomen.
The troops Dutchwomen go on March 8th, 1942.
Released by the Japanese, Soekarno decides to make the play of the new occupant, persuaded to be able to benefit from it. It takes part thus in the creation of the “Center of the Popular Capacity” - Pusat Tenaga Rakyat - whose acronym PUTERA means “wire, child” in 1943.
In March 1945 whereas the Americans take again control of the Pacific gradually, the Japanese encourage the creation of a “investigating committee for the preliminary work with the independence of Indonesia”. Within this committee, Soekarno insists on the need for a State religieusement neutral.
In June, he makes a speech in which he exposes his doctrines on the basis of independent Indonesia: “five pillars” - Pancasila .
Japan signs the capitulation on August 15th.
The following night, from the young nationalists remove Soekarno and Hatta, another nationalist leader.
IndependenceThe August 17th in the morning, Soekarno reads the proclamation of the independence of Indonesia, from which it is named the first president.
One 4 years period of armed conflict and diplomatic against the Dutch follows that Indonésiens call Revolusi - “Révolution indonésienne”.
In 1955, Soekarno accommodates in Indonesia the Conférence of Bandung which does of him one of the leaders of the Third world.
With the Netherlands
After the Independence (1949), the tensions arrive very quickly with old the colonial power after the proclamation of a République of Moluques of the South (1950) which is quickly crushed (of the thousands of Moluquois take refuge with the Netherlands).
In 1962, the army indonésienne invades the New Guinea Dutchwoman (only territory which Dutch had been able to maintain of the the Indies Dutchwomen.
Arrival of SoehartoOctober 1st 1965 in the morning an officer then unknown, the Untung lieutenant-colonel, commander of a battalion of the presidential guard, announces with the radio operator being with the head of a “revolutionary council”, called Mouvement of September 30th - Gerakan September Tigapuluh or G30S , which thwarted a plot against president Soekarno and stopped six generals. Another general, Soeharto, take the head of repression and stop the rebels in less forty-eight hours.
In March 1966, whereas he is still officially president, Soeharto the constrained one to sign the Supersemar (acronym of Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret , “ordinance of March 11th”), by which he formally transfers the capacity to Soeharto. Soeharto is then elected president of the Republic on March 21st, 1966 by the Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Sementara - MPRS - “Temporary Deliberative Parliament of the People”.
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