It is a soft and silver plated Métal, which belongs to the alkaline metals. One does not find it with the state of pure Substance in nature, but it is very abundant in the form of made up, for example in the salt. It burns with a yellow Flamme.
Notable characteristicsLike the others alkaline Metals, sodium has a soft, white aspect silver plated, slightly rosy. It is a very reactive element; in particular it oxidizes slowly with the humid air and reacts violently with the Eau, which forces to preserve it in the Huile or under an inert atmosphere of Azote or Argon. Sodium is light, fleet on water and breaks up it while releasing from the Dihydrogène and by forming Soude, the Hydroxyde of sodium (according to the reaction: 2 Na + 2:00 2O --> H2 + 2 NaOH). The heat released by the exothermic reaction of decomposition of water is generally enough, in the presence of Oxygène, to make explode produced hydrogen.
Its relatively low melting point, in the neighborhoods of 100°C, makes it easy to handle, store and transport (out of cisterns for example, in which is solidified it to remelt it on arrival), on the condition of being very vigilant with good to always leave it under inert atmosphere and safe from water or moisture, because of its great reactivity.
This metal burns in the air only with higher temperatures with 388 K (either 115 °C).
Sodium is put in resonance by a Magnetic field of 11 MHz.
Applications of sodiumSodium in its metal form is an essential reagent in the manufacture of the Ester S like in that of others Composés organics, used in particular in the Drug company, the Cosmétiques, the Pesticides, etc It was used a long time, in the form of alloy with the Plomb, for the tetraethyl production of Plomb, anti-knock Additif for the automobile Carburant.
Other uses of sodium metal:
- for the synthesis of the Indigo artificial, the Borohydrure of sodium;
- in some Alloy S, to improve their structure;
- to purify the molten metals;
- sodium in liquid form constitutes the coolant (ensuring the transfer of heat) some nuclear reactors with fast neutrons.
The NAK is an alloy of sodium and of Potassium, it is an important material for the transfer of Chaleur.
Sodium is used in the form of alkaline vapor in the sodium vapor lamps. This vapor is very reactive: for example, with 1 400°C, it reacts with alumina by forming Aluminate.
Composed of sodiumThe chemical compounds in which one finds an ion Na+ sodium are extremely numerous. Among simplest one can quote:
- sea salt or salt of table, which is sodium chloride NaCl;
- the Soda or Hydroxide of sodium NaOH;
- the water of Javel, which contains sodium chloride NaCl and Hypochlorite of NaClO sodium.
Compounds of sodium are also found:
Sodium is for a long time recognized in the compounds, but it was not insulated before 1807, when Sir Humphry Davy carried out the electrolysis caustic Soda. During the the Middle Ages, a compound of sodium with the Latin name of sodanum was used for the treatment of the headaches. The symbol of sodium Na comes from the Latin name of a compound of sodium called natrium , which itself comes from the Greek nitron , a kind of natural salt (the Natron).
ManufactureSodium metal is manufactured by electrolysis molten sodium chloride. The found sodium chloride towards 800°C, it is necessary for technological reasons to use it in mixture with Calcium chloride and Chlorure of barium. This mixture makes it possible to work with approximately 600°C. The principal sodium metal producers in the world are:
- MSSA - special Metals in France with Pomblière-Saint-Marcel close to Moûtiers in Savoy;
- Dupont with the E. - U. at Niagara Falls;
- various producers appeared recently in China in Inner Mongolia, in the Ningxia and the Henan.
- a video on the oxidation of sodium
Simple: Sodium Zh-min-nan: Na (goân-sò͘) Zh-yue: 鈉
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