The sociolinguistic is the part of the Linguistique having for object the study of the Langage and the Langue under their sociocultural aspect.
HistoryWilliam Labov is often considered, at least in the Anglo-Saxon tradition, like the founder of sociolinguistic modern. It is him which, in 1966, published off The Social Stratification English in New York City (the social Stratification of English in New York).
Sociolinguistic variablesSociolinquistic research is done in general by the interview of a sample of speaking subjects concerned. The stress is laid on certain variables which must, according to Labov:
- to have a frequency of raised use,
- to have a certain immunity with respect to a conscious control,
- to belong to a larger structure, and
- to be easily quantified on a linear scale.
In general, in fact the phonetic variables satisfy these conditions most easily. The grammatical variables are also used, and, more rarely, of the lexical variables.
Some variables with sociolinguistic significance
- , English the Glottal stop the Allophone S of the nasal vowel in the French lexemes a fine and ,
- the former high Vowels in the dialect of Basle, where the allophone not-round-off is diagnostic social elite.
- double English negation,
- the omission of the at the time of the French negation,
- employment, in Switzerland-German, of the future with the modal verb werden , borrowed from standard German.
- use of forms of loan of patois in regional French of Switzerland (p.ex. galetas for attic , etc)
Fundamental concepts of the sociolinguistique oneAlthough the sociolinguistique one is a very vast discipline, there exist some fundamental concepts on which are based the majority of the studies.
- the sociolinguistique one studies the external language in opposition to the internal language.
- the external language relates to the language under consideration in a social context.
- intern: semantics and syntax.
- external: social language.
Social networksResearch into sociolinguistic implies the comprehension of the social networks in which the language fits. That can apply at the macroscopic level with a country or a city, but also at the interpersonal level within a vicinity or of a family.
Social variablesThe sociolinguistic study of a variety can take into account a large range of social components, according to the treated problems. Most current are the age, the Sexe, the Social class or the ethnos group. The sociolinguistic variables are then compared with those social.
However, one can note the existence of many Sociolecte S (varieties with the social status) of the same language, for example:
- the childish language
- the language of the young people
- the language of the seniors
- the language of the women
- the language of the men
- the language of the students
- the language of the apprentices
- the language of the graduates
- the language of the workmen
- the language of the professionals of a certain trade
- the political language
- William Labov
- Basil Bernstein
- Peter Trudgill
- Louis-Jean Calvet
- Jean-Baptiste Marcellesi
- Linguistic Sociology
- Purism (linguistic)
- Semen, re-examined transdisciplinaire of sciences of the language
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