A social network is a whole of social entities such as individuals or social organizations connected between them by bonds created at the time of the social interactions. It is represented by a structure or a dynamic form of a social grouping. The Analysis of the social networks, based on the Network analysis, the use of the graphs and analyzes it sociological represents the field studied the social networks. Social networks can be created strategically to increase or make more efficient sound clean social network (professional, friendly,). There exist applications Internet helping to create a circle of friends, to find Partenaire S commercial, an employment or others. It is about services of social networking
A social network represents a social Structure dynamic modelling itself by tops and edges. The tops generally designate people and/or organizations and are connected between them by social interactions.
The term comes from John A. Barnes in 1954.
Applications in Social sciences
See also: Analysis of the social networks
The use of the Théorie of the social networks in social sciences began with the studies on the Urbanisation from the Manchester school (being centered around max Gluckman), carried out mainly in Zambia during the years 1960. The field of the Sociometry, trying to quantify the social relations connected the step. Thereafter, of the academics such as Harrison White or Mark Granovetter widened the use of the social networks, and they are now employed to help to explain the many ones and various phenomena of the everyday life in social sciences. The to be able within the organizations, for example, was found to raise more of the degree with which a Social actor of a network is in the center of several social relations that to its effective professional title. The social networks play also a fundamental role in the recruiting, the success of the companies, and the professional output.
The theory of the social networks is an extremely active field in the academic world. The INSNA is an association of academics analysts of the social networks. Several of the research tools of network analyzes, such as UCInet or the package " network" for " R" , are available on line and are relatively easy to employ to present a graph of social network simply.
The theory of the diffusion of the innovations explores the social networks and their role to influence the diffusion news Idée S and practical S.
The Systèmes socio-technique are vaguely related to the analysis of networks and concentrate on the relations among the individuals, the institutions, the objects and technologies.
Regulate of 150
Alleged the rule of 150 , as called Nombre of Dunbar, supports as the size of an original social network is limited to approximately 150 members. this rule results from the trans-cultural studies in Sociologie and more specifically in Anthropologie on the maximum size of a Village (with the direction rather heard of écovillage ). It is theorized in evolutionary Psychologie that this number can be due to a certain human limit to recognize the members and to collect the emotional facts concerning all the members of a group. However, that can also be due to the economy and the need for detecting the stowaway , as it can be easier for a broad group to take advantage of the benefit of living in Communauté without contributing oneself to these common benefit.
Degrees of separation
the effect of the small world is the Hypothèse that the length of the chain of social knowledge necessary to bind a person, arbitrarily selected with does not matter that it other on Ground is generally short. The Concept generated the expression celebrates " Six degrees of separation " after the experiment of the small world of 1967, realized by the Psychological Stanley Milgram. It noted that two citizens by chance selected with the the United States are connected by, at most, six knowledge, and in any time. Contemporary Expérience S via Internet continue to explore this phenomenon. These experiments confirm that approximately five to seven degrees of separation are sufficient to connect any person to another by Internet.
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