The Slovenien ( slovenski jezik , slovenščina ) is a Slavic Langue of the family of the Indo-European Langues. He is spoken by two million people approximately, mainly in Slovenia, but also in Austria and Italy (area of Trieste). He is the Official language of Slovenia and one of the Official languages of the European Union.
The Slovenien preserved certain features of the Slavic Vieux and was influenced by the Latin , the German and the Italian . It is a language with Pitch.
WritingThe Slovenien is written with the Latin alphabet (without the letters Q, W, X, Y) supplemented by diacritics, the šumniki (the Slovenien uses three of them: Č, Š, Ž). The Slovenien alphabet thus comprises 25 letters.
The writing, in its pure form, does not use any other symbol, with share for example of the additional accents, when it is necessary to distinguish from the similar words with a different direction. They are usually not written and the reader is supposed to include/understand the word thanks to the context. For example:
- gòl (naked), gól (goal);
- jêsen (ash), jesén (autumn);
- kót (angle, corner), kot (like);
- med (between), méd (honey);
- polovíca (half), pol. (half an hour expresses before a hour given), pól (pole);
- prècej (at once, antiquated), precéj (much).
PronunciationThe Slovenien has 29 Phonème S: 21 Consonant S and 8 Vowel S.
Old analyzes of the Slovenien concluded that the length of the vowels plays a part in this language, but of the more recent studies rejected this assertion for the majority of the speakers. The current assumption is that the accentuated vowels are long and not the accentuated short ones. All the vowels can be accentuated or not. However, /e/ and /o/ not accentuated are restricted with some grammatical words like bo (an auxiliary to indicate the future).
The constrictive consonants voiced are dévoisées at the end of the words, unless they are immediately followed of a word starting with a vowel or a voiced consonant. /ʋ/has several Allophone S, according to the context:
- before a vowel: ʋ ;
- at the end of a syllable or in front of a consonant: U ;
- at the beginning of a syllable before a voiced consonant: W ;
- at the beginning of a vowel before a deaf consonant: ʍ .
The dynamic accent marks the stressing as well as the duration of the vowel. The place of the accent is foreseeable: any long vowel is automatically accentuated, and into the words without long vowel, the accent falls on the last syllable. The only exception is the Schwa, which is always short and can be accentuated without being in the last syllable. Certain compound words, but not all, have several accents. In the Slovenien writing, the dynamic accent can be written on all the vowels, as on R (which is never syllabic in standard Slovenien, but is used for the sequences “schwa + R”, when it is surrounded by consonants); for example, vrt (“garden”) is accentuated in vŕt .
The dynamic stressing employs three diacritic: the acute accent (´) (long and closed), the circumflex accent (^) (long and opened) and the grave accent (`) (short and opened).
The tonal stressing uses four of them: the acute accent (´) (long and high), the short one reversed (̑) or the circumflex accent (^) (long and low), the grave accent (`) (short and high) and the double grave accent (``) (short and low), by marking the E or O closed with a point subscribes (̣)
- jabolk' O represents une' Pomme;
- jabolk' I represents deux' apples exactly;
- jabolk' has is used starting from trois' apples.
However, the duel does not get busy for the natural pairs: two socks (a pair of socks) says nogavic' E (plural) and not nogavic I (duel). Lastly, as opposed to what implies the expression of “us two” (which often summarizes the duel), this grammatical number does not have any intrinsic concept of intimacy, like the example of the socks shows it well.
The Slovenien also comprises three grammatical kinds: the male ( moški spol ), the female ( ženski spol ) and the neutral ( srednji spol ); like six Case: the Personal ( imenovalnik ), the Genitive ( rodilnik ), the Dative ( dajalnik ), the Accusative ( tožilnik ), the Rental ( mestnik ) and the Instrumental ( orodnik ).
VariationsThe Nom S are made of a root to which one adds a Suffixe which depends on the Cas, of the kind and the number.
- “a delivers” (female): ” ena knjig' a' “;
- “two Beer S” (neutral): ” dve piv' i' “;
- “three student S” (male): ” trije študent' i' “ (” trije študent' je' “).
The numbers are rather complex (example with “boy” and “girl”):
- figure one: singular:
- by fant ,
- ena punca ;
- figure two: duel, except so even natural, in which case plural and variation according to whether it is or not masculine:
- dv' a' fant' has ,
- FD e' punc' I ;
- figures three and four: plural with personal ending and variation according to whether it is or not masculine:
- tri je' /štir' je' fant' je' (fant' i' ) ,
- tri /štiri punc' E ;
- figures five and more: plural with génitive ending:
- fart fant OV ;
- fart punc - Ø.
The accusativeThe Accusatif presents few differences with the Nominatif
- ” Kam greš? - Grem v lekarn' o' “ (“Where do you go? - I go to pharmacy”).
The Slovenien comprises four times, but only three are used in the language running: the past ( preteklik ), the present ( sedanjik ) and the future ( prihodnjik ). Pluperfect is restricted with the literature and does not get busy like French pluperfect.
PresentThe present is generally formed with the root Verbe to which one adds a Suffixe:
- “we eat” (verb jesti ) is written ” je' mo' “;
- “you buy” (verb kupiti ) is written ” kupi' š “.
Verb biti (to be), irregular
- “I met” (verb srečati , masculine) is written ” sem sreča' the “;
- “they laughed” (verb smejati , female, duel) is written ” sta smeja' li' “.
FutureThe future is formed in the same way that the past, but with the Verbe biti (to be) with the future.
Verb biti (to be)
- “you will have” (verb imeti , female, plural) is written ” boste ime' le' “;
- “they will drink” (verb piti , masculine, duel) is written ” bosta pi' la' “.
- Dictionary of the languages
- Languages by family
- Indo-European Languages
- Balto-Slavic group
- Slavic Languages
- southernmost Slavic languages
- Swadesh List of the Slovenien
- Slovenien linguistic Guide of Wikitravel
- Dictionary Freelang Dictionary Slovenien-French/Slovenien French-Slovenien
- Language class in French
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